Abstract

Titanate nanosheets (single layer, typically 200 nm lateral size) deposited from aqueous colloidal solution onto electrode surfaces form lamellar hosts that bind redox active molecular redox probes. Here, hydrophobic redox systems such as anthraquinone, 1-amino-anthraquinone, deca-methylferrocene, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (TPPMnCl), and α-tocopherol are shown to bind directly from cyclopentanone solution (and from other types of organic solvents) into the titanate nanosheet film. For anthraquinone derivatives, stable voltammetric responses are observed in aqueous media consistent with 2-electron 2-proton reduction, however, independent of the pH of the outside solution phase environments. For decamethylferrocene a gradual decay of the voltammetric response is observed, but for TPPMnCl a more stable voltammetric signal is seen when immersed in chloride containing (NaCl) electrolyte. α-Tocopherol exhibits chemically irreversible oxidation and is detected with 1 mM–20 mM linear range and approximately 10 −3 M concentration limit of detection. All redox processes exhibit an increase in current with increasing titanate film thickness and with increasing external electrolyte concentration. This and other observations suggest that important factors are analyte concentration and mobility within the titanate host, as well as ion exchange between titanate nanosheets and the outside electrolyte phase to maintain electroneutrality during voltammetric experiments. The lamellar titanate (with embedded tetrabutyl-ammonium cations) behaves like a hydrophobic host (for hydrophobic redox systems) similar to hydrophobic organic microphase systems. Potential for analytical applications is discussed.

LanguageEnglish
Article number100001
JournalAnalytica Chimica Acta
Volume1
Early online date18 Dec 2018
DOIs
StatusPublished - 1 Mar 2019

Cite this

Extraction of Hydrophobic Analytes from Organic Solution into a Titanate 2D-Nanosheet Host: Electroanalytical Perspectives. / Marken, Frank; Putra, Budi Riza; Fletcher, Philip; Tri Wahyuni, Wulan; Harito, Christian; Bavykin, Dmitry V; Walsh, FC.

In: Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 1, 100001, 01.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Titanate nanosheets (single layer, typically 200 nm lateral size) deposited from aqueous colloidal solution onto electrode surfaces form lamellar hosts that bind redox active molecular redox probes. Here, hydrophobic redox systems such as anthraquinone, 1-amino-anthraquinone, deca-methylferrocene, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (TPPMnCl), and α-tocopherol are shown to bind directly from cyclopentanone solution (and from other types of organic solvents) into the titanate nanosheet film. For anthraquinone derivatives, stable voltammetric responses are observed in aqueous media consistent with 2-electron 2-proton reduction, however, independent of the pH of the outside solution phase environments. For decamethylferrocene a gradual decay of the voltammetric response is observed, but for TPPMnCl a more stable voltammetric signal is seen when immersed in chloride containing (NaCl) electrolyte. α-Tocopherol exhibits chemically irreversible oxidation and is detected with 1 mM–20 mM linear range and approximately 10 −3 M concentration limit of detection. All redox processes exhibit an increase in current with increasing titanate film thickness and with increasing external electrolyte concentration. This and other observations suggest that important factors are analyte concentration and mobility within the titanate host, as well as ion exchange between titanate nanosheets and the outside electrolyte phase to maintain electroneutrality during voltammetric experiments. The lamellar titanate (with embedded tetrabutyl-ammonium cations) behaves like a hydrophobic host (for hydrophobic redox systems) similar to hydrophobic organic microphase systems. Potential for analytical applications is discussed.",
author = "Frank Marken and Putra, {Budi Riza} and Philip Fletcher and {Tri Wahyuni}, Wulan and Christian Harito and Bavykin, {Dmitry V} and FC Walsh",
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AU - Marken, Frank

AU - Putra, Budi Riza

AU - Fletcher, Philip

AU - Tri Wahyuni, Wulan

AU - Harito, Christian

AU - Bavykin, Dmitry V

AU - Walsh, FC

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N2 - Titanate nanosheets (single layer, typically 200 nm lateral size) deposited from aqueous colloidal solution onto electrode surfaces form lamellar hosts that bind redox active molecular redox probes. Here, hydrophobic redox systems such as anthraquinone, 1-amino-anthraquinone, deca-methylferrocene, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (TPPMnCl), and α-tocopherol are shown to bind directly from cyclopentanone solution (and from other types of organic solvents) into the titanate nanosheet film. For anthraquinone derivatives, stable voltammetric responses are observed in aqueous media consistent with 2-electron 2-proton reduction, however, independent of the pH of the outside solution phase environments. For decamethylferrocene a gradual decay of the voltammetric response is observed, but for TPPMnCl a more stable voltammetric signal is seen when immersed in chloride containing (NaCl) electrolyte. α-Tocopherol exhibits chemically irreversible oxidation and is detected with 1 mM–20 mM linear range and approximately 10 −3 M concentration limit of detection. All redox processes exhibit an increase in current with increasing titanate film thickness and with increasing external electrolyte concentration. This and other observations suggest that important factors are analyte concentration and mobility within the titanate host, as well as ion exchange between titanate nanosheets and the outside electrolyte phase to maintain electroneutrality during voltammetric experiments. The lamellar titanate (with embedded tetrabutyl-ammonium cations) behaves like a hydrophobic host (for hydrophobic redox systems) similar to hydrophobic organic microphase systems. Potential for analytical applications is discussed.

AB - Titanate nanosheets (single layer, typically 200 nm lateral size) deposited from aqueous colloidal solution onto electrode surfaces form lamellar hosts that bind redox active molecular redox probes. Here, hydrophobic redox systems such as anthraquinone, 1-amino-anthraquinone, deca-methylferrocene, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphine manganese (III) chloride (TPPMnCl), and α-tocopherol are shown to bind directly from cyclopentanone solution (and from other types of organic solvents) into the titanate nanosheet film. For anthraquinone derivatives, stable voltammetric responses are observed in aqueous media consistent with 2-electron 2-proton reduction, however, independent of the pH of the outside solution phase environments. For decamethylferrocene a gradual decay of the voltammetric response is observed, but for TPPMnCl a more stable voltammetric signal is seen when immersed in chloride containing (NaCl) electrolyte. α-Tocopherol exhibits chemically irreversible oxidation and is detected with 1 mM–20 mM linear range and approximately 10 −3 M concentration limit of detection. All redox processes exhibit an increase in current with increasing titanate film thickness and with increasing external electrolyte concentration. This and other observations suggest that important factors are analyte concentration and mobility within the titanate host, as well as ion exchange between titanate nanosheets and the outside electrolyte phase to maintain electroneutrality during voltammetric experiments. The lamellar titanate (with embedded tetrabutyl-ammonium cations) behaves like a hydrophobic host (for hydrophobic redox systems) similar to hydrophobic organic microphase systems. Potential for analytical applications is discussed.

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