External influences on referees’ decisions in judo: The effects of coaches’ exclamations during throw situations

Nicolas Souchon, Paul Fontayne, Andrew Livingstone, Gregory R. Maio, Nathalie Mellac, Christophe Genolini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)


The present research investigated the influence of coaches’ exclamations on referees’ decision-making in judo. Under time pressure, 65 judo referees judged identical throw situations played on video. The coaches’ exclamations during throws were audible in the experimental condition, whereas no sound was present in the control condition. The throw situations varied in ambiguity (low vs. high) and strength (minor sanctions vs. hard sanctions), while coaches’ exclamations interpreted the throws in a manner that was congenial for their own competitor. Results indicated that referees may use an audience response heuristic or a consensus heuristic to help them make decisions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-233
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Applied Sport Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology

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