Expressive vocabulary predicts non-verbal executive function: a 2-year longitudinal study of deaf and hearing children

Anna Jones, Joanna Atkinson, Chloe Marshall, Nicola Botting, Michelle C St Clair, Gary Morgan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Numerous studies suggest an association between language and executive function (EF), but evidence of a developmental relationship remains inconclusive. Data were collected from 75 deaf/hard-of-hearing (DHH) children and 82 hearing age-matched controls. Children were 6-11 years old at first time of testing, and completed a battery of nonverbal EF tasks and a test of expressive vocabulary. These tasks were completed again two years later. Both groups improved their scores on all tasks over this period. DHH children performed significantly less well than hearing peers on some EF tasks and the vocabulary test at both time points. Cross-lagged panel models showed that vocabulary at Time 1 predicted change in EF scores for both DHH and hearing children but not the reverse.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)e400-e414
Number of pages15
JournalChild Development
Issue number2
Early online date11 Feb 2019
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


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