Exploring the relationship between male norm beliefs, pain-related beliefs and behaviours: An online questionnaire study

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Abstract

Background
Gender beliefs help explain the variation found in pain among men and women. Gender norms and expectations are thought to affect how men and women report and express pain. However, less is known about how such beliefs are related to pain outside of laboratory settings. The aim of this study was therefore to consider the relationship between beliefs in male role norms, pain and pain behaviours in men and women.

Methods
An online questionnaire study was conducted. A total of 468 adults (352 women), with or without pain, completed a series of self‐report measures relating to beliefs about pain and male role norms, as well as pain and general health behaviours.

Results
An experience of pain was associated with lower beliefs in traditional male norms. Endorsing stereotypical male norms was related to increased stigma associated with seeking professional help for pain in both men and women, but to a lesser extent associated with general health behaviours. There also seemed to be gender‐based beliefs associated with the expression of pain.

Conclusions
Together these findings suggest that beliefs in gender (male) norms are relevant to pain, and that there is utility in exploring the variation in pain beyond binary male–female categories.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)423-434
JournalEuropean Journal of Pain
Volume24
Issue number2
Early online date29 Oct 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29 Feb 2020

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