Exploring the nexus of variables in English Medium Instruction research: a comprehensive global meta-analysis

Samantha Curle, Omar Mansour Alqarni, Hassan Saleh Mahdi, Haifa A Al-Nofaie , Jamal Kaid Mohammed Ali

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The primary objective of this study is to conduct a comprehensive meta-analysis of English Medium Instruction (EMI) literature, addressing the significant gap in quantitative evaluations within the existing research. By analysing 47 empirical studies employing statistical methods, this research aims to uncover broader trends and correlations within EMI data. Specifically, the study investigates the magnitude of correlations for various factors, such as measurement outcomes and academic subjects, within EMI contexts. It also examines the influence of different research methodologies on reported correlation coefficients, thereby assessing how methodological choices shape observed relationships in EMI studies. Key findings reveal that perceived academic performance and perceived English language proficiency exhibit the highest effect sizes, underscoring the importance of students' perceptions in EMI success. Conversely, actual academic performance, actual English language proficiency, motivation, and affective factors show small correlations with EMI, highlighting potential areas for pedagogical improvement. Self-efficacy demonstrates a medium correlation, indicating its significant role in EMI settings. Among academic subjects, Computer Science stands out with the highest effect size, suggesting discipline-specific variations in EMI effectiveness. Additionally, the study identifies that different measurement tools, including questionnaires and standardized tests, generally show small correlations, indicating a need for more refined assessment instruments in future EMI research. This meta-analysis not only provides a nuanced understanding of the various factors influencing EMI but also offers crucial insights for enhancing EMI implementation and assessment, thereby contributing to the broader discourse on educational strategies and outcomes in multilingual settings.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Multilingualism
Publication statusAcceptance date - 1 Jul 2024


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