Experimental measurements of ingestion through turbine rim seals, Part 2

rotationally-induced ingress

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Abstract

Part I of this two-part paper presented experimental results for externally-induced (EI) ingress, where the ingestion of hot gas through the rim seal into the wheel-space of a gas turbine is controlled by the circumferential variation of pressure in the external annulus. In Part II, experimental results are presented for rotationally-induced (RI) ingress, where the ingestion is controlled by the pressure generated by the rotating fluid in the wheel-space. Although EI ingress is the common form of ingestion through turbine rim seals, RI ingress or combined ingress (where EI and RI ingress are both significant) is particularly important for double seals, where the pressure asymmetries are attenuated in the annular space between the inner and outer seals. In this paper, the sealing effectiveness was determined from concentration measurements, and the variation of effectiveness with sealing flow rate was compared with theoretical curves for RI ingress obtained from an orifice model. Using a nondimensional sealing parameter phio the data could be collapsed onto a single curve, and the theoretical variation of effectiveness with phio was in very good agreement with the data for a wide range of flow rates and rotational speeds. It was shown that the sealing flow required to prevent RI ingress was much less than that needed for EI ingress, and it was also shown that the effectiveness of a radial-clearance seal is significantly better than that for an axial-clearance seal for both EI and RI ingress.
Original languageEnglish
Article number021013
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Turbomachinery: Transactions of the ASME
Volume135
Issue number2
Early online date8 Nov 2012
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2013

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Seals
Turbines
Wheels
Flow rate
Orifices
Gas turbines
Fluids
Gases

Cite this

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title = "Experimental measurements of ingestion through turbine rim seals, Part 2: rotationally-induced ingress",
abstract = "Part I of this two-part paper presented experimental results for externally-induced (EI) ingress, where the ingestion of hot gas through the rim seal into the wheel-space of a gas turbine is controlled by the circumferential variation of pressure in the external annulus. In Part II, experimental results are presented for rotationally-induced (RI) ingress, where the ingestion is controlled by the pressure generated by the rotating fluid in the wheel-space. Although EI ingress is the common form of ingestion through turbine rim seals, RI ingress or combined ingress (where EI and RI ingress are both significant) is particularly important for double seals, where the pressure asymmetries are attenuated in the annular space between the inner and outer seals. In this paper, the sealing effectiveness was determined from concentration measurements, and the variation of effectiveness with sealing flow rate was compared with theoretical curves for RI ingress obtained from an orifice model. Using a nondimensional sealing parameter phio the data could be collapsed onto a single curve, and the theoretical variation of effectiveness with phio was in very good agreement with the data for a wide range of flow rates and rotational speeds. It was shown that the sealing flow required to prevent RI ingress was much less than that needed for EI ingress, and it was also shown that the effectiveness of a radial-clearance seal is significantly better than that for an axial-clearance seal for both EI and RI ingress.",
author = "Sangan, {Carl M} and Oliver Pountney and Kunyuan Zhou and Owen, {J M} and Michael Wilson and Gary Lock",
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AU - Pountney, Oliver

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AU - Wilson, Michael

AU - Lock, Gary

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AB - Part I of this two-part paper presented experimental results for externally-induced (EI) ingress, where the ingestion of hot gas through the rim seal into the wheel-space of a gas turbine is controlled by the circumferential variation of pressure in the external annulus. In Part II, experimental results are presented for rotationally-induced (RI) ingress, where the ingestion is controlled by the pressure generated by the rotating fluid in the wheel-space. Although EI ingress is the common form of ingestion through turbine rim seals, RI ingress or combined ingress (where EI and RI ingress are both significant) is particularly important for double seals, where the pressure asymmetries are attenuated in the annular space between the inner and outer seals. In this paper, the sealing effectiveness was determined from concentration measurements, and the variation of effectiveness with sealing flow rate was compared with theoretical curves for RI ingress obtained from an orifice model. Using a nondimensional sealing parameter phio the data could be collapsed onto a single curve, and the theoretical variation of effectiveness with phio was in very good agreement with the data for a wide range of flow rates and rotational speeds. It was shown that the sealing flow required to prevent RI ingress was much less than that needed for EI ingress, and it was also shown that the effectiveness of a radial-clearance seal is significantly better than that for an axial-clearance seal for both EI and RI ingress.

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