We report the characterization of a universal set of logic gates for one-way quantum computing using a four-photon 'star' cluster state generated by fusing photons from two independent photonic crystal fibre sources. We obtain a fidelity for the cluster state of 0.66 ± 0.01 with respect to the ideal case. We perform quantum process tomography to completely characterize a controlled-NOT, Hadamard and T gate all on the same compact entangled resource. Together, these operations make up a universal set of gates such that arbitrary quantum logic can be efficiently constructed from combinations of them. We find process fidelities with respect to the ideal cases of 0.64 ± 0.01 for the CNOT, 0.67 ± 0.03 for the Hadamard and 0.76 ± 0.04 for the T gate. The characterization of these gates enables the simulation of larger protocols and algorithms. As a basic example, we simulate a Swap gate consisting of three concatenated CNOT gates. Our work provides some pragmatic insights into the prospects for building up to a fully scalable and fault-tolerant one-way quantum computer with photons in realistic conditions.
Bell, B. A., Tame, M. S., Clark, A. S., Nock, R. W., Wadsworth, W. J., & Rarity, J. G. (2013). Experimental characterization of universal one-way quantum computing. New Journal of Physics, 15, . https://doi.org/10.1088/1367-2630/15/5/053030