Expanding the Assessment of Attitude Components and Structure: The Benefits of Open-Ended Measures

Victoria M. Esses, Gregory R. Maio

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

45 Citations (Scopus)


In this chapter, we describe open-ended measures for assessing the cognitive, affective, and behavioral components of attitudes, and the use of these measures to assess a variety of properties relating to attitude structure. In describing the utility of these measures to assess both intergroup and more general attitudes, we highlight situations in which open-ended measures may have advantages over closed-ended measures, as well as identifying situations in which closed-ended measures may be preferable. We conclude by suggesting that researchers interested in fully assessing attitudes would do well to include both open-ended and closed-ended measures in pursuit of this endeavor.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationEuropean Review of Social Psychology
Number of pages31
ISBN (Electronic)9780470013472
ISBN (Print)0471486752, 9780471486756
Publication statusPublished - 28 Jan 2005


  • Affect and cognition
  • Idiosyncratic responses
  • Open-ended measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)

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