Exogenous indirect photoinactivation of bacterial pathogens and indicators in water with natural and synthetic photosensitizers in simulated sunlight with reduced UVB

Peter Maraccini, Jannis Wenk, Alexandria B. Boehm

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Aims: To investigate the UVB-independent and exogenous indirect photoinactivation of eight human health-relevant bacterial species in the presence of photosensitizers.
Methods and Results: Eight bacterial species were exposed to simulated sunlight with greatly reduced UVB light intensity in the presence of three synthetic photosensitizers and two natural photosensitizers. Inactivation curves were fit with shoulder-log linear or first order kinetic models, from which the presence of a shoulder and magnitude of inactivation rate constants were compared. 84% reduction in the UVB light intensity roughly matched a 72-95% reduction in the overall bacterial photoinactivation rate constants in sensitizer-free water. With the UVB light mostly reduced, the exogenous indirect mechanism contribution was evident for most bacteria and photosensitizers tested, although most prominently with the Gram-positive bacteria.
Conclusions: Results confirm the importance of UVB light in bacterial photoinactivation and, with the reduction of the UVB light intensity, that the Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable to the exogenous indirect mechanism than Gram-negative bacteria.
Significance and Impact of Study: UVB is the most important range of the sunlight spectrum for bacterial photoinactivation. In aquatic environments where photosensitizers are present and there is high UVB light attenuation, UVA and visible wavelengths can contribute to exogenous indirect photoinactivation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)587-597
JournalJournal of Applied Microbiology
Volume121
Issue number2
Early online date21 May 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016

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Photosensitizing Agents
Sunlight
Light
Water
Gram-Positive Bacteria
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Bacteria
Health

Cite this

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title = "Exogenous indirect photoinactivation of bacterial pathogens and indicators in water with natural and synthetic photosensitizers in simulated sunlight with reduced UVB",
abstract = "ABSTRACT Aims: To investigate the UVB-independent and exogenous indirect photoinactivation of eight human health-relevant bacterial species in the presence of photosensitizers. Methods and Results: Eight bacterial species were exposed to simulated sunlight with greatly reduced UVB light intensity in the presence of three synthetic photosensitizers and two natural photosensitizers. Inactivation curves were fit with shoulder-log linear or first order kinetic models, from which the presence of a shoulder and magnitude of inactivation rate constants were compared. 84{\%} reduction in the UVB light intensity roughly matched a 72-95{\%} reduction in the overall bacterial photoinactivation rate constants in sensitizer-free water. With the UVB light mostly reduced, the exogenous indirect mechanism contribution was evident for most bacteria and photosensitizers tested, although most prominently with the Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: Results confirm the importance of UVB light in bacterial photoinactivation and, with the reduction of the UVB light intensity, that the Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable to the exogenous indirect mechanism than Gram-negative bacteria. Significance and Impact of Study: UVB is the most important range of the sunlight spectrum for bacterial photoinactivation. In aquatic environments where photosensitizers are present and there is high UVB light attenuation, UVA and visible wavelengths can contribute to exogenous indirect photoinactivation.",
author = "Peter Maraccini and Jannis Wenk and Boehm, {Alexandria B.}",
year = "2016",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1111/jam.13183",
language = "English",
volume = "121",
pages = "587--597",
journal = "Journal of Applied Microbiology",
issn = "1364-5072",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Exogenous indirect photoinactivation of bacterial pathogens and indicators in water with natural and synthetic photosensitizers in simulated sunlight with reduced UVB

AU - Maraccini, Peter

AU - Wenk, Jannis

AU - Boehm, Alexandria B.

PY - 2016/8

Y1 - 2016/8

N2 - ABSTRACT Aims: To investigate the UVB-independent and exogenous indirect photoinactivation of eight human health-relevant bacterial species in the presence of photosensitizers. Methods and Results: Eight bacterial species were exposed to simulated sunlight with greatly reduced UVB light intensity in the presence of three synthetic photosensitizers and two natural photosensitizers. Inactivation curves were fit with shoulder-log linear or first order kinetic models, from which the presence of a shoulder and magnitude of inactivation rate constants were compared. 84% reduction in the UVB light intensity roughly matched a 72-95% reduction in the overall bacterial photoinactivation rate constants in sensitizer-free water. With the UVB light mostly reduced, the exogenous indirect mechanism contribution was evident for most bacteria and photosensitizers tested, although most prominently with the Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: Results confirm the importance of UVB light in bacterial photoinactivation and, with the reduction of the UVB light intensity, that the Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable to the exogenous indirect mechanism than Gram-negative bacteria. Significance and Impact of Study: UVB is the most important range of the sunlight spectrum for bacterial photoinactivation. In aquatic environments where photosensitizers are present and there is high UVB light attenuation, UVA and visible wavelengths can contribute to exogenous indirect photoinactivation.

AB - ABSTRACT Aims: To investigate the UVB-independent and exogenous indirect photoinactivation of eight human health-relevant bacterial species in the presence of photosensitizers. Methods and Results: Eight bacterial species were exposed to simulated sunlight with greatly reduced UVB light intensity in the presence of three synthetic photosensitizers and two natural photosensitizers. Inactivation curves were fit with shoulder-log linear or first order kinetic models, from which the presence of a shoulder and magnitude of inactivation rate constants were compared. 84% reduction in the UVB light intensity roughly matched a 72-95% reduction in the overall bacterial photoinactivation rate constants in sensitizer-free water. With the UVB light mostly reduced, the exogenous indirect mechanism contribution was evident for most bacteria and photosensitizers tested, although most prominently with the Gram-positive bacteria. Conclusions: Results confirm the importance of UVB light in bacterial photoinactivation and, with the reduction of the UVB light intensity, that the Gram-positive bacteria are more vulnerable to the exogenous indirect mechanism than Gram-negative bacteria. Significance and Impact of Study: UVB is the most important range of the sunlight spectrum for bacterial photoinactivation. In aquatic environments where photosensitizers are present and there is high UVB light attenuation, UVA and visible wavelengths can contribute to exogenous indirect photoinactivation.

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jam.13183

U2 - 10.1111/jam.13183

DO - 10.1111/jam.13183

M3 - Article

VL - 121

SP - 587

EP - 597

JO - Journal of Applied Microbiology

JF - Journal of Applied Microbiology

SN - 1364-5072

IS - 2

ER -