Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men

J P Walhin, J D Richardson, J A Betts, D Thompson

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Abstract

Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men (age 25 ± 7 years) were randomly-assigned either to consume 50 % more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps·day-1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n=14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70 % of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n=12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended during exercise; thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (Δ17 ± 16 nmol.120min.l-1; P=0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (Δ1 ±6 nmol.120min.l-1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially-expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and VISFATIN was significantly down-regulated (P≤0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P=0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects from short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6231-6243
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Physiology
Volume591
Issue number24
Early online date28 Oct 2013
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2013

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Exercise
Adipose Tissue
Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat
AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
Glucose Tolerance Test
Energy Intake
Running
Oxygen
Diet
Biopsy
Glucose
Genes
Proteins

Cite this

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title = "Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men",
abstract = "Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men (age 25 ± 7 years) were randomly-assigned either to consume 50 {\%} more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps·day-1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n=14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70 {\%} of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n=12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended during exercise; thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (Δ17 ± 16 nmol.120min.l-1; P=0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (Δ1 ±6 nmol.120min.l-1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially-expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and VISFATIN was significantly down-regulated (P≤0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P=0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects from short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus.",
author = "Walhin, {J P} and Richardson, {J D} and Betts, {J A} and D Thompson",
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T1 - Exercise counteracts the effects of short-term overfeeding and reduced physical activity independent of energy imbalance in healthy young men

AU - Walhin, J P

AU - Richardson, J D

AU - Betts, J A

AU - Thompson, D

PY - 2013/12/15

Y1 - 2013/12/15

N2 - Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men (age 25 ± 7 years) were randomly-assigned either to consume 50 % more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps·day-1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n=14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70 % of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n=12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended during exercise; thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (Δ17 ± 16 nmol.120min.l-1; P=0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (Δ1 ±6 nmol.120min.l-1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially-expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and VISFATIN was significantly down-regulated (P≤0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P=0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects from short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus.

AB - Physical activity can affect many aspects of metabolism but it is unclear to what extent this relies on manipulation of energy balance. Twenty-six active men (age 25 ± 7 years) were randomly-assigned either to consume 50 % more energy than normal by over-consuming their habitual diet for 7 days whilst simultaneously restricting their physical activity below 4000 steps·day-1 to induce an energy surplus (SUR group; n=14) or to the same regimen but with 45 min of daily treadmill running at 70 % of maximum oxygen uptake (SUR+EX group; n=12). Critically, the SUR+EX group received additional dietary energy intake to account for the energy expended during exercise; thus maintaining a matched energy surplus. At baseline and follow-up, fasted blood samples and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained and oral glucose tolerance tests conducted. Insulinaemic responses to a standard glucose load increased 2-fold from baseline to follow-up in the SUR group (Δ17 ± 16 nmol.120min.l-1; P=0.002) whereas there was no change in the SUR+EX group (Δ1 ±6 nmol.120min.l-1). Seven of 17 genes within adipose tissue were differentially-expressed in the SUR group; expression of SREBP1c, FAS and GLUT4 was significantly up-regulated and expression of PDK4, IRS2, HSL and VISFATIN was significantly down-regulated (P≤0.05). The pAMPK/AMPK protein ratio in adipose was significantly down-regulated in the SUR group (P=0.005). Vigorous-intensity exercise counteracted most of the effects from short-term overfeeding and under-activity at the whole-body level and in adipose tissue, even in the face of a standardised energy surplus.

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