Background: Little research exists on extending ex-vivo systems to large animal nerves, and to the best of our knowledge, there has yet to be a study comparing these against in-vivo data. This paper details the first ex-vivo system for large animal peripheral nerves to be compared with in-vivo results. New Method: Detailed ex-vivo and in-vivo closed-loop neuromodulation experiments were conducted on pig ulnar nerves. Temperatures from 20 °C to 37 °C were evaluated for the ex-vivo system. The data were analysed in the time and velocity domains, and a regression analysis established how evoked compound action potential amplitude and modal conduction velocity (CV) varied with temperature and time after explantation. Main results: Pig ulnar nerves were sustained ex-vivo up to 5 h post-explantation. CV distributions of ex-vivo and in-vivo data were compared, showing closer correspondence at 37 °C. Regression analysis results also demonstrated that modal CV and time since explantation were negatively correlated, whereas modal CV and temperature were positively correlated. Comparison with Existing Methods: Previous ex-vivo systems were primarily aimed at small animal nerves, and we are not aware of an ex-vivo system to be directly compared with in-vivo data. This new approach provides a route to understand how ex-vivo systems for large animal nerves can be developed and compared with in-vivo data. Conclusion: The proposed ex-vivo system results were compared with those seen in-vivo, providing new insights into large animal nerve activity post-explantation. Such a system is crucial for complementing in-vivo experiments, maximising collected experimental data, and accelerating neural interface development.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110116
JournalJournal of Neuroscience Methods
Early online date26 Mar 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 26 Mar 2024

Data Availability Statement

Data will be made available on request.


  • Ex-vivo
  • Multi-electrode cuffs
  • Neuromodulation
  • Peripheral nerves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)


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