Evidence for energy injection and a fine-tuned central engine at optical wavelengths in GRB 070419A

A. Melandri, C. Guidorzi, S. Kobayashi, D. Bersier, C. G. Mundell, P. Milne, A. Pozanenko, W. Li, A. V. Filippenko, Y. Urata, M. Ibrahimov, I. A. Steele, A. Gomboc, R. J. Smith, N. R. Tanvir, E. Rol, K. Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We present a comprehensive multiwavelength temporal and spectral analysis of the 'fast rise exponential decay' GRB 070419A. The early-time emission in the γ-ray and X-ray bands can be explained by a central engine active for at least 250 s, while at late times the X-ray light curve displays a simple power-law decay. In contrast, the observed behaviour in the optical band is complex (from 10 2 up to 10 6 s). We investigate the light-curve behaviour in the context of the standard forward/reverse shock model; associating the peak in the optical light curve at ∼450 s with the fireball deceleration time results in a Lorenz factor Γ ≈ 350 at this time. In contrast, the shallow optical decay between 450 and 1500 s remains problematic, requiring a reverse shock component whose typical frequency is above the optical band at the optical peak time for it to be explained within the standard model. This predicts an increasing flux density for the forward shock component until t ∼ 4 × 10 6 s, inconsistent with the observed decay of the optical emission from t ∼ 10 4 s. A highly magnetized fireball is also ruled out due to unrealistic microphysic parameters and predicted light-curve behaviour that is not observed. We conclude that a long-lived central engine with a finely tuned energy injection rate and a sudden cessation of the injection is required to create the observed light curves, consistent with the same conditions that are invoked to explain the plateau phase of canonical X-ray light curves of γ-ray bursts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1941-1949
Number of pages9
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume395
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2009

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light curve
engines
engine
injection
wavelength
wavelengths
energy
fireballs
shock
decay
x rays
temporal analysis
deceleration
gamma ray bursts
spectral analysis
spectrum analysis
light emission
plateaus
power law
flux density

Keywords

  • Gamma-rays: bursts

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Evidence for energy injection and a fine-tuned central engine at optical wavelengths in GRB 070419A. / Melandri, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Bersier, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Milne, P.; Pozanenko, A.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A. V.; Urata, Y.; Ibrahimov, M.; Steele, I. A.; Gomboc, A.; Smith, R. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Rol, E.; Huang, K.

In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 395, No. 4, 01.06.2009, p. 1941-1949.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Melandri, A, Guidorzi, C, Kobayashi, S, Bersier, D, Mundell, CG, Milne, P, Pozanenko, A, Li, W, Filippenko, AV, Urata, Y, Ibrahimov, M, Steele, IA, Gomboc, A, Smith, RJ, Tanvir, NR, Rol, E & Huang, K 2009, 'Evidence for energy injection and a fine-tuned central engine at optical wavelengths in GRB 070419A', Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, vol. 395, no. 4, pp. 1941-1949. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2966.2009.14729.x
Melandri, A. ; Guidorzi, C. ; Kobayashi, S. ; Bersier, D. ; Mundell, C. G. ; Milne, P. ; Pozanenko, A. ; Li, W. ; Filippenko, A. V. ; Urata, Y. ; Ibrahimov, M. ; Steele, I. A. ; Gomboc, A. ; Smith, R. J. ; Tanvir, N. R. ; Rol, E. ; Huang, K. / Evidence for energy injection and a fine-tuned central engine at optical wavelengths in GRB 070419A. In: Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 2009 ; Vol. 395, No. 4. pp. 1941-1949.
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AU - Melandri, A.

AU - Guidorzi, C.

AU - Kobayashi, S.

AU - Bersier, D.

AU - Mundell, C. G.

AU - Milne, P.

AU - Pozanenko, A.

AU - Li, W.

AU - Filippenko, A. V.

AU - Urata, Y.

AU - Ibrahimov, M.

AU - Steele, I. A.

AU - Gomboc, A.

AU - Smith, R. J.

AU - Tanvir, N. R.

AU - Rol, E.

AU - Huang, K.

PY - 2009/6/1

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N2 - We present a comprehensive multiwavelength temporal and spectral analysis of the 'fast rise exponential decay' GRB 070419A. The early-time emission in the γ-ray and X-ray bands can be explained by a central engine active for at least 250 s, while at late times the X-ray light curve displays a simple power-law decay. In contrast, the observed behaviour in the optical band is complex (from 10 2 up to 10 6 s). We investigate the light-curve behaviour in the context of the standard forward/reverse shock model; associating the peak in the optical light curve at ∼450 s with the fireball deceleration time results in a Lorenz factor Γ ≈ 350 at this time. In contrast, the shallow optical decay between 450 and 1500 s remains problematic, requiring a reverse shock component whose typical frequency is above the optical band at the optical peak time for it to be explained within the standard model. This predicts an increasing flux density for the forward shock component until t ∼ 4 × 10 6 s, inconsistent with the observed decay of the optical emission from t ∼ 10 4 s. A highly magnetized fireball is also ruled out due to unrealistic microphysic parameters and predicted light-curve behaviour that is not observed. We conclude that a long-lived central engine with a finely tuned energy injection rate and a sudden cessation of the injection is required to create the observed light curves, consistent with the same conditions that are invoked to explain the plateau phase of canonical X-ray light curves of γ-ray bursts.

AB - We present a comprehensive multiwavelength temporal and spectral analysis of the 'fast rise exponential decay' GRB 070419A. The early-time emission in the γ-ray and X-ray bands can be explained by a central engine active for at least 250 s, while at late times the X-ray light curve displays a simple power-law decay. In contrast, the observed behaviour in the optical band is complex (from 10 2 up to 10 6 s). We investigate the light-curve behaviour in the context of the standard forward/reverse shock model; associating the peak in the optical light curve at ∼450 s with the fireball deceleration time results in a Lorenz factor Γ ≈ 350 at this time. In contrast, the shallow optical decay between 450 and 1500 s remains problematic, requiring a reverse shock component whose typical frequency is above the optical band at the optical peak time for it to be explained within the standard model. This predicts an increasing flux density for the forward shock component until t ∼ 4 × 10 6 s, inconsistent with the observed decay of the optical emission from t ∼ 10 4 s. A highly magnetized fireball is also ruled out due to unrealistic microphysic parameters and predicted light-curve behaviour that is not observed. We conclude that a long-lived central engine with a finely tuned energy injection rate and a sudden cessation of the injection is required to create the observed light curves, consistent with the same conditions that are invoked to explain the plateau phase of canonical X-ray light curves of γ-ray bursts.

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