Evaluation of research on interventions aligned to WHO 'Best Buys' for NCDs in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review from 1990 to 2015

Luke N Allen, Jessica Pullar, Kremlin Khamarj Wickramasinghe, Julianne Williams, Nia Roberts, Bente Mikkelsen, Cherian Varghese, Nick Townsend

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs).

Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs.

Methods: We searched 13 major databases and included papers conducted in the 83 World Bank-defined LLMICs, published between 1 January 1990 and 5 February 2015. Two reviewers independently screened papers and assessed risk of bias. We adopted a narrative approach to data synthesis. The primary outcomes were NCD-related mortality and morbidity, and risk factor prevalence.

Results: We identified 2672 records, of which 36 were included (608 940 participants). No studies on 'best buys' were found in 89% of LLMICs. Nineteen of the 36 studies reported on the effectiveness of tobacco-related 'best buys', presenting good evidence for group interventions in reducing tobacco use but weaker evidence for interventions targeting individuals. There were fewer studies on smoking bans, warning labels and mass media campaigns, and no studies on taxes or marketing restrictions. There was supportive evidence that cervical screening and hepatitis B immunisation prevent cancer in LLMICs. A single randomised controlled trial supported polypharmacy for cardiovascular disease. Fourteen of the 'best buy' interventions did not have any good evidence for effectiveness in LLMICs.

Conclusions: We found studies on only 11 of the 24 interventions aligned with the WHO 'best buys' from LLMIC settings. Most LLMICs have not conducted research on these interventions in their populations. LLMICs should take action to implement and evaluate 'best buys' in their national context, based on national priorities, and starting with interventions with the strongest evidence base.

LanguageEnglish
Pagese000535
JournalGlobal Public Health
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatusPublished - Jan 2018

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Polypharmacy
Mass Media
United Nations
Taxes
Tobacco Use
Marketing
Hepatitis B
Research
Tobacco
Cause of Death
Immunization
Cardiovascular Diseases
Randomized Controlled Trials
Smoking
Databases
Morbidity
Costs and Cost Analysis
Mortality
Population
Neoplasms

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Evaluation of research on interventions aligned to WHO 'Best Buys' for NCDs in low-income and lower-middle-income countries : a systematic review from 1990 to 2015. / Allen, Luke N; Pullar, Jessica; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin Khamarj; Williams, Julianne; Roberts, Nia; Mikkelsen, Bente; Varghese, Cherian; Townsend, Nick.

In: Global Public Health, Vol. 3, No. 1, 01.2018, p. e000535.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Allen, Luke N ; Pullar, Jessica ; Wickramasinghe, Kremlin Khamarj ; Williams, Julianne ; Roberts, Nia ; Mikkelsen, Bente ; Varghese, Cherian ; Townsend, Nick. / Evaluation of research on interventions aligned to WHO 'Best Buys' for NCDs in low-income and lower-middle-income countries : a systematic review from 1990 to 2015. In: Global Public Health. 2018 ; Vol. 3, No. 1. pp. e000535.
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abstract = "Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs).Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs.Methods: We searched 13 major databases and included papers conducted in the 83 World Bank-defined LLMICs, published between 1 January 1990 and 5 February 2015. Two reviewers independently screened papers and assessed risk of bias. We adopted a narrative approach to data synthesis. The primary outcomes were NCD-related mortality and morbidity, and risk factor prevalence.Results: We identified 2672 records, of which 36 were included (608 940 participants). No studies on 'best buys' were found in 89{\%} of LLMICs. Nineteen of the 36 studies reported on the effectiveness of tobacco-related 'best buys', presenting good evidence for group interventions in reducing tobacco use but weaker evidence for interventions targeting individuals. There were fewer studies on smoking bans, warning labels and mass media campaigns, and no studies on taxes or marketing restrictions. There was supportive evidence that cervical screening and hepatitis B immunisation prevent cancer in LLMICs. A single randomised controlled trial supported polypharmacy for cardiovascular disease. Fourteen of the 'best buy' interventions did not have any good evidence for effectiveness in LLMICs.Conclusions: We found studies on only 11 of the 24 interventions aligned with the WHO 'best buys' from LLMIC settings. Most LLMICs have not conducted research on these interventions in their populations. LLMICs should take action to implement and evaluate 'best buys' in their national context, based on national priorities, and starting with interventions with the strongest evidence base.",
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T1 - Evaluation of research on interventions aligned to WHO 'Best Buys' for NCDs in low-income and lower-middle-income countries

T2 - Global Public Health

AU - Allen, Luke N

AU - Pullar, Jessica

AU - Wickramasinghe, Kremlin Khamarj

AU - Williams, Julianne

AU - Roberts, Nia

AU - Mikkelsen, Bente

AU - Varghese, Cherian

AU - Townsend, Nick

PY - 2018/1

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N2 - Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs).Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs.Methods: We searched 13 major databases and included papers conducted in the 83 World Bank-defined LLMICs, published between 1 January 1990 and 5 February 2015. Two reviewers independently screened papers and assessed risk of bias. We adopted a narrative approach to data synthesis. The primary outcomes were NCD-related mortality and morbidity, and risk factor prevalence.Results: We identified 2672 records, of which 36 were included (608 940 participants). No studies on 'best buys' were found in 89% of LLMICs. Nineteen of the 36 studies reported on the effectiveness of tobacco-related 'best buys', presenting good evidence for group interventions in reducing tobacco use but weaker evidence for interventions targeting individuals. There were fewer studies on smoking bans, warning labels and mass media campaigns, and no studies on taxes or marketing restrictions. There was supportive evidence that cervical screening and hepatitis B immunisation prevent cancer in LLMICs. A single randomised controlled trial supported polypharmacy for cardiovascular disease. Fourteen of the 'best buy' interventions did not have any good evidence for effectiveness in LLMICs.Conclusions: We found studies on only 11 of the 24 interventions aligned with the WHO 'best buys' from LLMIC settings. Most LLMICs have not conducted research on these interventions in their populations. LLMICs should take action to implement and evaluate 'best buys' in their national context, based on national priorities, and starting with interventions with the strongest evidence base.

AB - Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death and disability worldwide, with low-income and middle-income countries experiencing a disproportionately high burden. Since 2010 WHO has promoted 24 highly cost-effective interventions for NCDs, dubbed 'best buys'. It is unclear whether these interventions have been evaluated in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs).Aim: To systematically review research on interventions aligned to WHO 'best buys' for NCDs in LLMICs.Methods: We searched 13 major databases and included papers conducted in the 83 World Bank-defined LLMICs, published between 1 January 1990 and 5 February 2015. Two reviewers independently screened papers and assessed risk of bias. We adopted a narrative approach to data synthesis. The primary outcomes were NCD-related mortality and morbidity, and risk factor prevalence.Results: We identified 2672 records, of which 36 were included (608 940 participants). No studies on 'best buys' were found in 89% of LLMICs. Nineteen of the 36 studies reported on the effectiveness of tobacco-related 'best buys', presenting good evidence for group interventions in reducing tobacco use but weaker evidence for interventions targeting individuals. There were fewer studies on smoking bans, warning labels and mass media campaigns, and no studies on taxes or marketing restrictions. There was supportive evidence that cervical screening and hepatitis B immunisation prevent cancer in LLMICs. A single randomised controlled trial supported polypharmacy for cardiovascular disease. Fourteen of the 'best buy' interventions did not have any good evidence for effectiveness in LLMICs.Conclusions: We found studies on only 11 of the 24 interventions aligned with the WHO 'best buys' from LLMIC settings. Most LLMICs have not conducted research on these interventions in their populations. LLMICs should take action to implement and evaluate 'best buys' in their national context, based on national priorities, and starting with interventions with the strongest evidence base.

U2 - 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000535

DO - 10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000535

M3 - Article

VL - 3

SP - e000535

JO - Global Public Health

JF - Global Public Health

SN - 1744-1692

IS - 1

ER -