Computational Fluid Dynamics combined with a particle tracking technique provides valuable information concerning residence times and contact times in chemical reactors. In drinking water treatment, for example an accurate estimation of the disinfection is important to predict the microbial safety. Ozone contactors are widely used for disinfection, but the complex geometry of the system causes suboptimal hydraulics and requires optimizations of the flow. This results in a lower ozone dosage, which may reduce the formation of unwanted disinfection-by-products and the consumption of energy. To that end disinfection needs to be calculated precisely, accounting for the complex hydraulics. Several calculation methods estimating the disinfection performance of ozone contactors were evaluated using Computational Fluid Dynamics. For an accurate disinfection prediction, the full distribution of ozone exposures (CT values) is needed, only a mean CT value or residence time distribution provides insufficient information for an accurate disinfection prediction. Adjustments to the geometry of the ozone contactor that reduce the short-circuit flows resulted in an increase in disinfection capacity, whereas the mean CT value remained the same. A sensitivity analysis with respect to the kinetics was conducted. The gain in disinfection capacity obtained by optimizing the hydraulics was significant for typical values used in practice.
- Contact time
- Disinfection calculation method
- Ozone contactor
- Particle tracking