Evaluating parameters affecting drug fate at the intramuscular injection site

Adam McCartan, David Curran, Randy Mrsny

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (SciVal)
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Intramuscular (IM) injections are a well-established method of delivering a variety of therapeutics formulated for parenteral administration. While the wide range of commercial IM pharmaceuticals provide a wealth of pharmacokinetic (PK) information following injection, there remains an inadequate understanding of drug fate at the IM injection site that could dictate these PK outcomes. An improved understanding of injection site events could improve approaches taken by formulation scientists to identify therapeutically effective and consistent drug PK outcomes. Interplay between the typically non-physiological aspects of drug formulations and the homeostatic IM environment may provide insights into the fate of drugs at the IM injection site, leading to predictions of how a drug will behave post-injection in vivo. Immune responses occur by design after e.g. vaccine administration, however immune responses post-injection are not in the scope of this article. Taking cues from existing in vitro modelling technologies, the purpose of this article is to propose “critical parameters” of the IM environment that could be examined in hypothesis-driven studies. Outcomes of such studies might ultimately be useful in predicting and improving in vivo PK performance of IM injected drugs.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)322-335
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Controlled Release
Early online date19 Jun 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Aug 2021


  • Drug fate
  • Extracellular matrix
  • Intramuscular injection
  • Modelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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