Small fresh water fishes such as the zebrafish (Danio rerio) have become important model organisms for biomedical research. They currently represent the best vertebrate embryo models in which it is possible to derive quantitative data on gene expression, signaling events, and cell behavior in real time in the living animal. Relevant phenotypes in fish mutants are similar to those of other vertebrate models and human diseases. They can be analyzed in great detail and much faster than in mammals. In recent years, approximately 2500 genetically distinct fish lines have been generated by European research groups alone. Their potential, including their possible use by industry, is far from being exploited. To promote zebrafish research in Europe, EuFishBioMed was founded and won support by the EU COST programme (http://www.cost.esf.org/). The main objective of EuFishBioMed is to establish a platform of knowledge exchange for research on small fish models with a strong focus on widening its biomedical applications and an integration of European research efforts and resources. EuFishBioMed currently lists more than 300 member laboratories in Europe, offers funding for short-term laboratory visits, organizes and co-sponsors meetings and workshops, and has successfully lobbied for the establishment of a European Zebrafish Resource Centre. To maintain this network in the future, beyond the funding period of the COST Action, we are currently establishing the European Society for Fish Models in Biology and Medicine. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.