Accumulating evidence shows indigenous gut microbes can interact with the human host through modulation of serotonin (5-HT) signaling. Here we investigate the impact of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) on 5-HT signalling in gut tissues. Ex-vivo mouse ileal tissue sections were treated with either EcN or the human gut commensal MG1655, and effects on levels of 5-HT, precursors, and metabolites, were evaluated using amperometry and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Exposure of tissue to EcN cells, but not MG1655 cells, was found to increase levels of extra-cellular 5-HT. These effects were not observed when tissues were treated with cell-free supernatant from bacterial cultures. In contrast, when supernatant recovered from untreated ileal tissue was pre-incubated with EcN, the derivative cell-free supernatant was able to elevate 5-HT overflow when used to treat fresh ileal tissue. Measurement of 5-HT precursors and metabolites indicated EcN also increases intracellular 5-HTP and reduces 5-HIAA. The former pointed to modulation of tryptophan hydroxylase-1 to enhance 5-HT synthesis, while the latter indicates an impact on clearance into enterocytes through SERT. Taken together, these findings show EcN is able to enhance 5-HT bioavailability in ileal tissues through interaction with compounds secreted from host tissues.
- Biological Availability
- Escherichia coli/physiology
- Extracellular Space/metabolism
- Fatty Acids/metabolism
- Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism
- Models, Biological
- Synaptic Transmission