Epoxy Adhesives Modified With Nano- and Microparticles for In Situ Timber Bonding: Fracture Toughness Characteristics

Z Ahmad, Martin P Ansell, D Smedley

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5 Citations (SciVal)


Adhesives used for bonded-in steel or composite pultruded rods and plate to make connections in timber structures are commonly room temperature cure adhesives. The room temperature cure, applied without pressure, thixotropic, and shear thinning characteristics of the adhesives, is for ease of application when repairs and reinforcement are being made in situ in the field. The room temperature cure adhesive may not fully cross-link and this may cause brittleness. Therefore to improve the toughness properties of such adhesives, nanoparticles can be added. This paper reports the experimental investigation carried out on the fracture toughness of three thixotropic and room temperature cured epoxy-based adhesives formulated specifically for in situ timber bonding, namely, CB10TSS (standard adhesive), Albipox is CB10TSS with the addition of nanodispersed carboxyl-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile (CTBN), and Timberset is an adhesive formulation containing ceramic microparticles. The fracture toughness behavior of the adhesives was investigated using the Charpy impact test on unnotched and notched specimens conditioned at 20 degrees C/65% RH to evaluate notch sensitivity, and a single-edge notched beam (SENB) test was performed to evaluate the stress intensity factor K(IC). The fracture surfaces were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Under high impact rate, toughness was in the order of CB10TSS, Albipox, and Timberset. CB10TSS and Albipox were found to be ductile in the unnotched state and brittle when notched. Timberset was brittle in both unnotched and notched states. Under low strain rate (SENB) conditions the addition of CTBN significantly improved the fracture toughness of Albipox compared with CB10TSS and Timberset. Examination of the topography of the fractured surface revealed marked changes in crack propagation due to the addition of nano- or microfillers accounting for the variation in toughness properties.
Original languageEnglish
Article number031006
JournalJournal Of Engineering Materials And Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2011


  • toughness
  • fracture
  • stress intensity factor
  • notched specimens


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