Environmentally conscious machining of difficult-to-machine materials with regard to cutting fluids

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Machining difficult-to-machine materials such as alloys used in aerospace, nuclear and medical industries are usually accompanied with low productivity, poor surface quality and short tool life. Despite the broad use of the term difficult-to-machine or hard-to-cut materials, the area of these types of materials and their properties are not clear yet. On the other hand, using cutting fluids is a common technique for improving machinability and has been acknowledged since early 20th. However, the environmental and health hazards associated with the use of conventional cutting fluids together with developing governmental regulations have resulted in increasing machining costs. The aim of this paper is to review and identify the materials known as difficult-to-machine and their properties. In addition, different cutting fluids are reviewed and major health and environmental concerns about their usage in material cutting industries are defined. Finally, advances in reducing and/or eliminating the use of conventional cutting fluids are reviewed and discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)83-101
Number of pages19
JournalInternational Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture
Early online date17 Feb 2012
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2012



  • cutting fluids
  • environmentally conscious machining
  • difficult to machine materials

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