Lead-zirconate-titanate [Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 PZT] crystals possess superior ferroelectric, dielectric and piezoelectric properties. However, due to the toxicity of lead there is a demand for lead-free alternatives. In the present work, we focus on the production of the lead-free (Ba,Ca)(Sn,Ti)O3 (BCST) ceramics via solid-state synthesis method. BCST ceramics calcined at 1050◦C, 1100◦C, 1150◦C, 1200◦C and 1250◦C were characterized using XRD analysis which showed that at temperatures above 1150◦C the structure was free from impurities. Rietveld refinements confirmed a tetragonal structure with P4mm space group for the material calcined at 1150◦C. Scanning electron microscopy image analysis of samples sintered at 1200◦C, 1250◦C and 1300◦C showed an increase in grain size and density with temperature. The material sintered at 1300◦C had a higher dielectric constant compared to other ceramics. A larger grain size facilitated high ferroelectric polarisation (3.38 μC/cm2), dielectric constant (6100) and d33 piezoelectric coefficient (236 pC/N) for the ceramics. This study demonstrates the potential for using lead-free BCST ceramics for device applications, such as piezoelectric actuators, transducers and ultrasonic motors.
Original languageEnglish
Article number174358
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Early online date1 Apr 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 Apr 2024

Bibliographical note

The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Climate-Resilient Energy Secure and healthy built environmenTs (CREST) project. CREST is supported by a Going Global Partnerships – Collaborative Grant from the British Council’s Going Global Partnerships programme [grant number 877766384].

Data Availability Statement

Data will be made available on request.


  • Barium calcium tin titanate
  • Dielectric
  • Ferroelectric
  • Lead-free ceramics
  • Piezoelectric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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