The purpose of this study was to determine whether endurance (E) or endurance + resistance (ER) training affects C-reactive protein (CRP) and if these changes are related to alterations in fitness and (or) body composition in young females. Thirty-eight females (aged 18-24 years) were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) E, (2) ER or (3) active control (AC). The E and ER groups completed 15 weeks of marathon training. The ER group performed additional resistance training and the AC group maintained their usual exercise routine. Primary outcomes were measured pre- and post-training and included anthropometric indices, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, plasma CRP, time to complete 1.5 miles (in minutes), and upper and lower body strength tests (i.e., 8 repetition max on bench and leg press (ER group only)). There were no differences in any variable among the groups at baseline. After training, the E group decreased time to complete 1.5 miles (p < 0.05). The AC group decreased percent and absolute body fat while the E group decreased percent body fat, absolute body fat, and android and gynoid body fat (p < 0.05). The ER group significantly improved strength (p < 0.001) and reduced plasma CRP from 2.0 +/- 1.1 to 0.8 +/- 0.3 mg.L(-1) (p = 0.03). No significant associations were observed between CRP and measures of body composition or aerobic capacity. Combined endurance and resistance training may be an effective modality for reducing plasma CRP in young adult females independent of changes in aerobic capacity or body composition.