Elite sprinting: are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant?

Aki I. T. Salo, Ian N. Bezodis, Alan M. Batterham, David G. Kerwin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 47 Citations

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the step characteristics among the very best 100-m sprinters in the world to understand whether the elite athletes are individually more reliant on step frequency (SF) or step length (SL).

Methods: A total of 52 male elite-level 100-m races were recorded from publicly available television broadcasts, with 11 analyzed athletes performing in 10 or more races. For each run of each athlete, the average SF and SL over the whole 100-m distance was analyzed. To determine any SF or SL reliance for an individual athlete, the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between the SF-time versus SL-time relationships was derived using a criterion nonparametric boot-strapping technique.

Results: Athletes performed these races with various combinations of SF and SL reliance. Athlete A10 yielded the highest positive CI difference (SL reliance), with a value of 1.05 (CI = 0.50-1.53). The largest negative difference (SF reliance) occurred for athlete A11 as -0.60, with the CI range of -1.20 to 0.03.

Conclusions: Previous studies have generally identified only one of these variables to be the main reason for faster running velocities. However, this study showed that there is a large variation of performance patterns among the elite athletes and, overall, SF or SL reliance is a highly individual occurrence. It is proposed that athletes should take this reliance into account in their training, with SF-reliant athletes needing to keep their neural system ready for fast leg turnover and SL-reliant athletes requiring more concentration on maintaining strength levels.

LanguageEnglish
Pages1055-1062
Number of pages8
JournalMedicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Volume43
Issue number6
DOIs
StatusPublished - Jun 2011

Fingerprint

Athletes
Confidence Intervals
antineoplaston A10
Television
Leg

Cite this

Elite sprinting: are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant? / Salo, Aki I. T.; Bezodis, Ian N.; Batterham, Alan M.; Kerwin, David G.

In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, Vol. 43, No. 6, 06.2011, p. 1055-1062.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Salo, Aki I. T. ; Bezodis, Ian N. ; Batterham, Alan M. ; Kerwin, David G./ Elite sprinting: are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant?. In: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2011 ; Vol. 43, No. 6. pp. 1055-1062
@article{dcb951a4ca444cf6b986c0d016a8a1f9,
title = "Elite sprinting: are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant?",
abstract = "Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the step characteristics among the very best 100-m sprinters in the world to understand whether the elite athletes are individually more reliant on step frequency (SF) or step length (SL). Methods: A total of 52 male elite-level 100-m races were recorded from publicly available television broadcasts, with 11 analyzed athletes performing in 10 or more races. For each run of each athlete, the average SF and SL over the whole 100-m distance was analyzed. To determine any SF or SL reliance for an individual athlete, the 90{\%} confidence interval (CI) for the difference between the SF-time versus SL-time relationships was derived using a criterion nonparametric boot-strapping technique. Results: Athletes performed these races with various combinations of SF and SL reliance. Athlete A10 yielded the highest positive CI difference (SL reliance), with a value of 1.05 (CI = 0.50-1.53). The largest negative difference (SF reliance) occurred for athlete A11 as -0.60, with the CI range of -1.20 to 0.03. Conclusions: Previous studies have generally identified only one of these variables to be the main reason for faster running velocities. However, this study showed that there is a large variation of performance patterns among the elite athletes and, overall, SF or SL reliance is a highly individual occurrence. It is proposed that athletes should take this reliance into account in their training, with SF-reliant athletes needing to keep their neural system ready for fast leg turnover and SL-reliant athletes requiring more concentration on maintaining strength levels.",
author = "Salo, {Aki I. T.} and Bezodis, {Ian N.} and Batterham, {Alan M.} and Kerwin, {David G.}",
year = "2011",
month = "6",
doi = "10.1249/MSS.0b013e318201f6f8",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "1055--1062",
journal = "Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise",
issn = "0195-9131",
publisher = "Lippincott Williams & Wilkins",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Elite sprinting: are athletes individually step-frequency or step-length reliant?

AU - Salo,Aki I. T.

AU - Bezodis,Ian N.

AU - Batterham,Alan M.

AU - Kerwin,David G.

PY - 2011/6

Y1 - 2011/6

N2 - Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the step characteristics among the very best 100-m sprinters in the world to understand whether the elite athletes are individually more reliant on step frequency (SF) or step length (SL). Methods: A total of 52 male elite-level 100-m races were recorded from publicly available television broadcasts, with 11 analyzed athletes performing in 10 or more races. For each run of each athlete, the average SF and SL over the whole 100-m distance was analyzed. To determine any SF or SL reliance for an individual athlete, the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between the SF-time versus SL-time relationships was derived using a criterion nonparametric boot-strapping technique. Results: Athletes performed these races with various combinations of SF and SL reliance. Athlete A10 yielded the highest positive CI difference (SL reliance), with a value of 1.05 (CI = 0.50-1.53). The largest negative difference (SF reliance) occurred for athlete A11 as -0.60, with the CI range of -1.20 to 0.03. Conclusions: Previous studies have generally identified only one of these variables to be the main reason for faster running velocities. However, this study showed that there is a large variation of performance patterns among the elite athletes and, overall, SF or SL reliance is a highly individual occurrence. It is proposed that athletes should take this reliance into account in their training, with SF-reliant athletes needing to keep their neural system ready for fast leg turnover and SL-reliant athletes requiring more concentration on maintaining strength levels.

AB - Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the step characteristics among the very best 100-m sprinters in the world to understand whether the elite athletes are individually more reliant on step frequency (SF) or step length (SL). Methods: A total of 52 male elite-level 100-m races were recorded from publicly available television broadcasts, with 11 analyzed athletes performing in 10 or more races. For each run of each athlete, the average SF and SL over the whole 100-m distance was analyzed. To determine any SF or SL reliance for an individual athlete, the 90% confidence interval (CI) for the difference between the SF-time versus SL-time relationships was derived using a criterion nonparametric boot-strapping technique. Results: Athletes performed these races with various combinations of SF and SL reliance. Athlete A10 yielded the highest positive CI difference (SL reliance), with a value of 1.05 (CI = 0.50-1.53). The largest negative difference (SF reliance) occurred for athlete A11 as -0.60, with the CI range of -1.20 to 0.03. Conclusions: Previous studies have generally identified only one of these variables to be the main reason for faster running velocities. However, this study showed that there is a large variation of performance patterns among the elite athletes and, overall, SF or SL reliance is a highly individual occurrence. It is proposed that athletes should take this reliance into account in their training, with SF-reliant athletes needing to keep their neural system ready for fast leg turnover and SL-reliant athletes requiring more concentration on maintaining strength levels.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79957986346&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e318201f6f8

U2 - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318201f6f8

DO - 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318201f6f8

M3 - Article

VL - 43

SP - 1055

EP - 1062

JO - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

T2 - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

JF - Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise

SN - 0195-9131

IS - 6

ER -