Electroosmosis in transdermal iontophoresis

implications for noninvasive and calibration-free glucose monitoring

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48 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Reverse iontophoresis uses a small low electric current to noninvasively extract blood analytes, e.g., glucose, across the skin. The simultaneous quantification of the analyte extracted and of an additional endogenous substance of fixed and known concentration in the body permits the blood level of interest to be found without the need for an invasive calibration procedure. The transport phenomena underlying this approach, applied to glucose monitoring, has been investigated in vitro, using Na+ and neutral model solutes as endogenous internal standards (specifically, urea, glycerol, mannitol, and sucrose). The cathodal extracted fluxes of glucose under conditions of modified skin permselectivity were related to those of the different, potential internal standards. Flux ratios depended upon the iontophoretic conditions and the size of the neutral internal standards, whereas high variability was observed with Na+. Constant flux ratios were obtained with mannitol, glycerol, urea, and sucrose for which the mechanism of electrotransport was identical to that of glucose. The advantage of using a neutral internal standard, however, must be weighed against the need to identify and validate the marker under physiological conditions and the additional analytical chemistry necessary for the practical quantification of this substance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3344-3350
Number of pages7
JournalBiophysical Journal
Volume87
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

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Electroosmosis
Iontophoresis
Calibration
Glucose
Mannitol
Glycerol
Sucrose
Urea
Skin

Cite this

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title = "Electroosmosis in transdermal iontophoresis: implications for noninvasive and calibration-free glucose monitoring",
abstract = "Reverse iontophoresis uses a small low electric current to noninvasively extract blood analytes, e.g., glucose, across the skin. The simultaneous quantification of the analyte extracted and of an additional endogenous substance of fixed and known concentration in the body permits the blood level of interest to be found without the need for an invasive calibration procedure. The transport phenomena underlying this approach, applied to glucose monitoring, has been investigated in vitro, using Na+ and neutral model solutes as endogenous internal standards (specifically, urea, glycerol, mannitol, and sucrose). The cathodal extracted fluxes of glucose under conditions of modified skin permselectivity were related to those of the different, potential internal standards. Flux ratios depended upon the iontophoretic conditions and the size of the neutral internal standards, whereas high variability was observed with Na+. Constant flux ratios were obtained with mannitol, glycerol, urea, and sucrose for which the mechanism of electrotransport was identical to that of glucose. The advantage of using a neutral internal standard, however, must be weighed against the need to identify and validate the marker under physiological conditions and the additional analytical chemistry necessary for the practical quantification of this substance.",
author = "Anke Sieg and Guy, {Richard H.} and Delgado-Charro, {M Begona}",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Electroosmosis in transdermal iontophoresis

T2 - implications for noninvasive and calibration-free glucose monitoring

AU - Sieg, Anke

AU - Guy, Richard H.

AU - Delgado-Charro, M Begona

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Reverse iontophoresis uses a small low electric current to noninvasively extract blood analytes, e.g., glucose, across the skin. The simultaneous quantification of the analyte extracted and of an additional endogenous substance of fixed and known concentration in the body permits the blood level of interest to be found without the need for an invasive calibration procedure. The transport phenomena underlying this approach, applied to glucose monitoring, has been investigated in vitro, using Na+ and neutral model solutes as endogenous internal standards (specifically, urea, glycerol, mannitol, and sucrose). The cathodal extracted fluxes of glucose under conditions of modified skin permselectivity were related to those of the different, potential internal standards. Flux ratios depended upon the iontophoretic conditions and the size of the neutral internal standards, whereas high variability was observed with Na+. Constant flux ratios were obtained with mannitol, glycerol, urea, and sucrose for which the mechanism of electrotransport was identical to that of glucose. The advantage of using a neutral internal standard, however, must be weighed against the need to identify and validate the marker under physiological conditions and the additional analytical chemistry necessary for the practical quantification of this substance.

AB - Reverse iontophoresis uses a small low electric current to noninvasively extract blood analytes, e.g., glucose, across the skin. The simultaneous quantification of the analyte extracted and of an additional endogenous substance of fixed and known concentration in the body permits the blood level of interest to be found without the need for an invasive calibration procedure. The transport phenomena underlying this approach, applied to glucose monitoring, has been investigated in vitro, using Na+ and neutral model solutes as endogenous internal standards (specifically, urea, glycerol, mannitol, and sucrose). The cathodal extracted fluxes of glucose under conditions of modified skin permselectivity were related to those of the different, potential internal standards. Flux ratios depended upon the iontophoretic conditions and the size of the neutral internal standards, whereas high variability was observed with Na+. Constant flux ratios were obtained with mannitol, glycerol, urea, and sucrose for which the mechanism of electrotransport was identical to that of glucose. The advantage of using a neutral internal standard, however, must be weighed against the need to identify and validate the marker under physiological conditions and the additional analytical chemistry necessary for the practical quantification of this substance.

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1529/biophysj.104.044792

U2 - 10.1529/biophysj.104.044792

DO - 10.1529/biophysj.104.044792

M3 - Article

VL - 87

SP - 3344

EP - 3350

JO - Biophysical Journal

JF - Biophysical Journal

SN - 0006-3495

ER -