Electrochemistry of immobilised redox droplets: Concepts and applications

Craig E. Banks, Trevor J. Davies, Russell G. Evans, Geraldine Hignett, Andrew J. Wain, Nathan S. Lawrence, Jay D. Wadhawan, Frank Marken, Richard G. Compton

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

183 Citations (SciVal)


The use of microdroplet modified electrodes provides a simple methodology with which to study the biphasic electrochemistry of a plethora of species, encouraging the use of such techniques to mimic emulsion media. Furthermore, since the droplets may be miniaturised, this approach may assist in the field of biomimetic electrochemistry. For these reasons, this paper reviews the voltammetry of electrodes modified with electrochemically active droplets. The primary focus of the review is of unsupported droplets, where electron transfer processes occur at the three phase boundary, the base circumference of the individual droplets (of a volume range spanning nine orders of magnitude, going from microlitre to femtolitre volumes). The voltammetry of such systems is categorised via a semi-quantitative appreciation of the voltammetric characteristics. Finally, several topical examples illustrating the potential of application of this technology are described.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4053-4069
Number of pages17
JournalPhysical Chemistry Chemical Physics
Issue number19
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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