Electrical impedance behaviour of carbon fibre reinforced cement-based sensors at different moisture contents

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Carbon fibre reinforced cement-based sensors offer a potential low-cost and high-performance alternative to externally applied sensors for health monitoring of concrete structures. This paper focuses on the moisture dependence of bulk conductivity for carbon fibre reinforced cement-based sensors with fibre contents 0.1–1.5 vol%. Under two-point AC impedance spectroscopy at frequencies 1 Hz–10 MHz, the electrode polarization (EP) process, an electrical double layer polarization process (EDLP), and the bulk Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization process (MWP) were identified. While reducing the saturation degree from 100 % to 0 %, the fractional change of bulk conductivity (FCS) underwent three different stages, which consists of a non-linear stage at 100–80 % saturation, a linear stage at 80–20 % saturation, and a final stage at 20–0 % saturation. The results gave insights into the stability of cement-based sensors under field conditions, and the underlying mechanisms of behaviour. From this, a route towards appropriate use of cement-based sensors in mechanical sensing and potentially moisture sensing without further external measures can be realised.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129049
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Early online date13 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 24 Oct 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical staff within Department of Architecture & Civil Engineering at University of Bath for the technical support & assistance in this work. The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) is thanked for funding the Resilient Materials for Life (RM4L) project (grant ID: EP/PO2081X/1). For the purpose of open access, the author has applied a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) licence to any Author Accepted Manuscript version arising.


  • Carbon fibres
  • Cement-based sensors
  • Impedance spectroscopy
  • Polarization
  • Saturation degree

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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