Novel cross-laminated bamboo panels comprising three and five layers (G-XLam3 and G-XLam5) were tested in compression along the main (0°) and the transverse (90°) directions. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and non-contact three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) measuring techniques were used separately to measure deformation in the elastic region, and the elastic moduli, Ep C,0 and Ep C,90, were derived. Mean elastic modulus values obtained using LVDTs exhibited a good match with analytically predicted values. In contrast, the elastic values obtained by the DIC method were considerably higher and presented a considerable scatter of results. For instance, the Ep C,0 for G-XLam3 and G-XLam5 panels were 17·22 and 15·67 GPa, and 14·86 and 12·48 GPa, using the DIC and LVDT methods, respectively. In general, G-XLam panels with a fifth of the cross-sectional thickness and twice the density of analogous cross-laminated timber exhibited an approximately two-fold increase in Ep C,0 and Ep C,90. Overall, this research provides guidelines for the assessment and standardisation of the testing procedures for similar engineered bamboo products using contact and non-contact methods and highlights the potential of using G-XLam panels in stiffness-driven applications and in combination with wood for structural purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)284-295
Number of pages12
JournalProceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Construction Materials
Issue number6
Early online date5 May 2017
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2019


  • materials technology
  • strength & testing of materials
  • timber structures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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