Efficacy of population-wide diabetes and obesity prevention programs: An overview of systematic reviews on proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes and a meta-analysis of impact on BMI

Samantha Roberts, Louis Pilard, Junqiao Chen, Jennifer Hirst, Harry Rutter, Trisha Greenhalgh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Summary We conducted an overview of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the impact on body mass index (BMI) of primary studies of population-wide obesity and diabetes prevention programs, in order to evaluate their efficacy. We searched eight databases for reviews of population-level programs reporting effect on diet, physical activity, BMI, or prevalence of obesity/overweight or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Meta-analysis of primary studies within reviews reporting effect on BMI. Interventions were categorized using ANGELO framework and quality assessment using AMSTAR. Fifty-three systematic reviews were included. Primary studies were largely natural experiments or cross-sectional studies of national data. Increased price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fast food, decreased price of fruit and vegetables, food labelling, and grocery store interventions were associated with positive effects on diet. Park and playground renovations and point-of-choice prompts to increase stair use were associated with positive effects on physical activity. Increased price of SSBs, menu labelling, grocery store interventions, and multicomponent interventions were associated with small reductions in BMI. There was insufficient evidence of impact of any interventions on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, or T2DM. We have identified a promising suite of population-wide actions to improve diet, increase physical activity, and reduce BMI. Impact on subsequent incidence of T2DM remains speculative.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalObesity Reviews
Early online date30 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2019

Keywords

  • obesity prevention, population-wide action, type 2 diabetes prevention

Cite this

Efficacy of population-wide diabetes and obesity prevention programs: An overview of systematic reviews on proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes and a meta-analysis of impact on BMI. / Roberts, Samantha; Pilard, Louis; Chen, Junqiao; Hirst, Jennifer; Rutter, Harry; Greenhalgh, Trisha.

In: Obesity Reviews, 01.05.2019, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{15b3bbe470034404973e35df4ecc41ee,
title = "Efficacy of population-wide diabetes and obesity prevention programs: An overview of systematic reviews on proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes and a meta-analysis of impact on BMI",
abstract = "Summary We conducted an overview of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the impact on body mass index (BMI) of primary studies of population-wide obesity and diabetes prevention programs, in order to evaluate their efficacy. We searched eight databases for reviews of population-level programs reporting effect on diet, physical activity, BMI, or prevalence of obesity/overweight or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Meta-analysis of primary studies within reviews reporting effect on BMI. Interventions were categorized using ANGELO framework and quality assessment using AMSTAR. Fifty-three systematic reviews were included. Primary studies were largely natural experiments or cross-sectional studies of national data. Increased price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fast food, decreased price of fruit and vegetables, food labelling, and grocery store interventions were associated with positive effects on diet. Park and playground renovations and point-of-choice prompts to increase stair use were associated with positive effects on physical activity. Increased price of SSBs, menu labelling, grocery store interventions, and multicomponent interventions were associated with small reductions in BMI. There was insufficient evidence of impact of any interventions on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, or T2DM. We have identified a promising suite of population-wide actions to improve diet, increase physical activity, and reduce BMI. Impact on subsequent incidence of T2DM remains speculative.",
keywords = "obesity prevention, population-wide action, type 2 diabetes prevention",
author = "Samantha Roberts and Louis Pilard and Junqiao Chen and Jennifer Hirst and Harry Rutter and Trisha Greenhalgh",
year = "2019",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/obr.12821",
language = "English",
pages = "1--17",
journal = "Obesity Reviews",
issn = "1467-7881",
publisher = "John Wiley & Sons, Ltd",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Efficacy of population-wide diabetes and obesity prevention programs: An overview of systematic reviews on proximal, intermediate, and distal outcomes and a meta-analysis of impact on BMI

AU - Roberts, Samantha

AU - Pilard, Louis

AU - Chen, Junqiao

AU - Hirst, Jennifer

AU - Rutter, Harry

AU - Greenhalgh, Trisha

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Summary We conducted an overview of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the impact on body mass index (BMI) of primary studies of population-wide obesity and diabetes prevention programs, in order to evaluate their efficacy. We searched eight databases for reviews of population-level programs reporting effect on diet, physical activity, BMI, or prevalence of obesity/overweight or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Meta-analysis of primary studies within reviews reporting effect on BMI. Interventions were categorized using ANGELO framework and quality assessment using AMSTAR. Fifty-three systematic reviews were included. Primary studies were largely natural experiments or cross-sectional studies of national data. Increased price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fast food, decreased price of fruit and vegetables, food labelling, and grocery store interventions were associated with positive effects on diet. Park and playground renovations and point-of-choice prompts to increase stair use were associated with positive effects on physical activity. Increased price of SSBs, menu labelling, grocery store interventions, and multicomponent interventions were associated with small reductions in BMI. There was insufficient evidence of impact of any interventions on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, or T2DM. We have identified a promising suite of population-wide actions to improve diet, increase physical activity, and reduce BMI. Impact on subsequent incidence of T2DM remains speculative.

AB - Summary We conducted an overview of systematic reviews and a meta-analysis of the impact on body mass index (BMI) of primary studies of population-wide obesity and diabetes prevention programs, in order to evaluate their efficacy. We searched eight databases for reviews of population-level programs reporting effect on diet, physical activity, BMI, or prevalence of obesity/overweight or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Meta-analysis of primary studies within reviews reporting effect on BMI. Interventions were categorized using ANGELO framework and quality assessment using AMSTAR. Fifty-three systematic reviews were included. Primary studies were largely natural experiments or cross-sectional studies of national data. Increased price of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and fast food, decreased price of fruit and vegetables, food labelling, and grocery store interventions were associated with positive effects on diet. Park and playground renovations and point-of-choice prompts to increase stair use were associated with positive effects on physical activity. Increased price of SSBs, menu labelling, grocery store interventions, and multicomponent interventions were associated with small reductions in BMI. There was insufficient evidence of impact of any interventions on the prevalence of overweight, obesity, or T2DM. We have identified a promising suite of population-wide actions to improve diet, increase physical activity, and reduce BMI. Impact on subsequent incidence of T2DM remains speculative.

KW - obesity prevention, population-wide action, type 2 diabetes prevention

U2 - 10.1111/obr.12821

DO - 10.1111/obr.12821

M3 - Article

SP - 1

EP - 17

JO - Obesity Reviews

JF - Obesity Reviews

SN - 1467-7881

ER -