Effects of physical form of β-lactoglobulin and calcium ingestion on GLP-1 secretion, gastric emptying and energy intake in humans: a randomised crossover trial

Jon Watkins, Harry Smith, Aaron Hengist, Soren B. Nielsen, Ulla Ramer Mikkelsen, John Saunders, Francoise Koumanov, James A. Betts, Javier T. Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess whether adding Ca2+ to aggregate or native forms of β-lactoglobulin alters gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying rates and energy intake in healthy men and women. Fifteen healthy adults (mean ± sd: 9M/6F, age: 24 ± 5 years) completed four trials in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Participants consumed test drinks consisting of 30 g of β-lactoglobulin in a native form with (NATIVE + MINERALS) and without (NATIVE) a Ca2+-rich mineral supplement and in an aggregated form both with (AGGREG + MINERALS) and without the mineral supplement (AGGREG). Arterialised blood was sampled for 120 min postprandially to determine gut hormone concentrations. Gastric emptying was determined using 13C-acetate and 13C-octanoate, and energy intake was assessed with an ad libitum meal at 120 min. A protein × mineral interaction effect was observed for total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1TOTAL) incremental AUC (iAUC; P < 0·01), whereby MINERALS + AGGREG increased GLP-1TOTAL iAUC to a greater extent than AGGREG (1882 ± 603 v. 1550 ± 456 pmol·l-1·120 min, P < 0·01), but MINERALS + NATIVE did not meaningfully alter the GLP-1 iAUC compared with NATIVE (1669 ± 547 v. 1844 ± 550 pmol·l-1·120 min, P = 0·09). A protein × minerals interaction effect was also observed for gastric emptying half-life (P < 0·01) whereby MINERALS + NATIVE increased gastric emptying half-life compared with NATIVE (83 ± 14 v. 71 ± 8 min, P < 0·01), whereas no meaningful differences were observed between MINERALS + AGGREG v. AGGREG (P = 0·70). These did not result in any meaningful changes in energy intake (protein × minerals interaction, P = 0·06). These data suggest that the potential for Ca2+ to stimulate GLP-1 secretion at moderate protein doses may depend on protein form. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04659902).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1730-1739
Number of pages10
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Volume131
Issue number10
Early online date30 Jan 2024
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 30 Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Appetite
  • Calcium
  • Energy intake
  • GLP-1
  • Protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)

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