Effects of introspection about reasons for values: extending research on values-as-truisms

Mark M. Bernard, Gregory R. Maio, James M. Olson

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27 Citations (SciVal)


In past research, analyzing reasons for values that involve promoting the welfare of others (i.e., self-transcendence values) caused them to change—a finding that occurs only when values lack prior cognitive support (Maio & Olson, 1998). In the present research, we tested whether analyzing reasons for values serving different motivations (e.g., conservation, self-enhancement) at different social levels (personal vs. societal) causes them to change. Experiment 1 replicated the finding that analyzing reasons for self-transcendence values causes these values to change, while extending this finding to three other types of values described by Schwartz (1992): conservation, openness, and self-enhancement values. Experiment 2 revealed the analyzing reasons effect for two types of social values described by Inglehart (1971): materialist and postmaterialist values. These results extend previous research on the malleability of values by showing that introspection has similar effects on many different kinds of values.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-25
JournalSocial Cognition
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2003


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