Effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on the selective processing of smoking-related cues and the relative value of cigarettes in smokers

Brian Hitsman, James MacKillop, Anne Lingford-Hughes, Tim M Williams, Faheem Ahmad, Sally Adams, David J Nutt, Marcus R Munafò

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rationale:
Acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) is a validated neurobiological challenge that results in reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission, allowing examination of the effects of a hypodopaminergic state on craving-related processes.

Objectives:
We studied 16 nonabstaining smokers (>10 cigarettes/day; 9 males; age 20–33 years) to whom was administered a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) in a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design.

Methods:
Subjective cigarette craving, attentional bias to smoking-related word cues, relative value of cigarettes, negative mood, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured at various timepoints through 300 min. Participants smoked at hourly intervals to prevent acute nicotine withdrawal during testing.

Results:
The TYR/PHE-free mixture, as compared to the BAL mixture, was associated with a greater increase in CO levels from baseline (p = 0.01). Adjusting for the potential confounding influence of between-condition differences in CO levels across time, TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with increased demand for cigarettes (p = 0.01) and decreased attentional bias toward smoking-related words (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between conditions in either subjective craving or depressed or anxious mood (p values > 0.05).

Conclusion:
Among nonabstaining daily smokers, acute dopaminergic depletion via ATPD may influence smoking behavior and indices of smoking-related motivation, such as attentional bias to smoking cues and relative cigarette value, which are not readily captured by subjective craving.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)611-621
Number of pages11
JournalPsychopharmacology
Volume196
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2008

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Phenylalanine
Tobacco Products
Cues
Tyrosine
Smoking
Carbon Monoxide
Dimercaprol
Nicotine
Synaptic Transmission
Cross-Over Studies
Motivation
Amino Acids
Craving
Attentional Bias

Keywords

  • adult
  • amino acids
  • cross-over studies
  • cues
  • dopamine
  • double-blind method
  • female
  • humans
  • male
  • multivariate analysis
  • phenylalanine
  • reaction time
  • smoking
  • smoking cessation
  • tyrosine

Cite this

Effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on the selective processing of smoking-related cues and the relative value of cigarettes in smokers. / Hitsman, Brian; MacKillop, James; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Williams, Tim M; Ahmad, Faheem; Adams, Sally; Nutt, David J; Munafò, Marcus R.

In: Psychopharmacology, Vol. 196, No. 4, 03.2008, p. 611-621.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hitsman, Brian ; MacKillop, James ; Lingford-Hughes, Anne ; Williams, Tim M ; Ahmad, Faheem ; Adams, Sally ; Nutt, David J ; Munafò, Marcus R. / Effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on the selective processing of smoking-related cues and the relative value of cigarettes in smokers. In: Psychopharmacology. 2008 ; Vol. 196, No. 4. pp. 611-621.
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abstract = "Rationale:Acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) is a validated neurobiological challenge that results in reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission, allowing examination of the effects of a hypodopaminergic state on craving-related processes.Objectives:We studied 16 nonabstaining smokers (>10 cigarettes/day; 9 males; age 20–33 years) to whom was administered a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) in a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design.Methods:Subjective cigarette craving, attentional bias to smoking-related word cues, relative value of cigarettes, negative mood, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured at various timepoints through 300 min. Participants smoked at hourly intervals to prevent acute nicotine withdrawal during testing.Results:The TYR/PHE-free mixture, as compared to the BAL mixture, was associated with a greater increase in CO levels from baseline (p = 0.01). Adjusting for the potential confounding influence of between-condition differences in CO levels across time, TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with increased demand for cigarettes (p = 0.01) and decreased attentional bias toward smoking-related words (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between conditions in either subjective craving or depressed or anxious mood (p values > 0.05).Conclusion:Among nonabstaining daily smokers, acute dopaminergic depletion via ATPD may influence smoking behavior and indices of smoking-related motivation, such as attentional bias to smoking cues and relative cigarette value, which are not readily captured by subjective craving.",
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T1 - Effects of acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion on the selective processing of smoking-related cues and the relative value of cigarettes in smokers

AU - Hitsman, Brian

AU - MacKillop, James

AU - Lingford-Hughes, Anne

AU - Williams, Tim M

AU - Ahmad, Faheem

AU - Adams, Sally

AU - Nutt, David J

AU - Munafò, Marcus R

PY - 2008/3

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N2 - Rationale:Acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) is a validated neurobiological challenge that results in reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission, allowing examination of the effects of a hypodopaminergic state on craving-related processes.Objectives:We studied 16 nonabstaining smokers (>10 cigarettes/day; 9 males; age 20–33 years) to whom was administered a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) in a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design.Methods:Subjective cigarette craving, attentional bias to smoking-related word cues, relative value of cigarettes, negative mood, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured at various timepoints through 300 min. Participants smoked at hourly intervals to prevent acute nicotine withdrawal during testing.Results:The TYR/PHE-free mixture, as compared to the BAL mixture, was associated with a greater increase in CO levels from baseline (p = 0.01). Adjusting for the potential confounding influence of between-condition differences in CO levels across time, TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with increased demand for cigarettes (p = 0.01) and decreased attentional bias toward smoking-related words (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between conditions in either subjective craving or depressed or anxious mood (p values > 0.05).Conclusion:Among nonabstaining daily smokers, acute dopaminergic depletion via ATPD may influence smoking behavior and indices of smoking-related motivation, such as attentional bias to smoking cues and relative cigarette value, which are not readily captured by subjective craving.

AB - Rationale:Acute tyrosine/phenylalanine depletion (ATPD) is a validated neurobiological challenge that results in reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission, allowing examination of the effects of a hypodopaminergic state on craving-related processes.Objectives:We studied 16 nonabstaining smokers (>10 cigarettes/day; 9 males; age 20–33 years) to whom was administered a tyrosine/phenylalanine-free mixture (TYR/PHE-free) and a balanced amino acid mixture (BAL) in a double-blind, counterbalanced, crossover design.Methods:Subjective cigarette craving, attentional bias to smoking-related word cues, relative value of cigarettes, negative mood, and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were measured at various timepoints through 300 min. Participants smoked at hourly intervals to prevent acute nicotine withdrawal during testing.Results:The TYR/PHE-free mixture, as compared to the BAL mixture, was associated with a greater increase in CO levels from baseline (p = 0.01). Adjusting for the potential confounding influence of between-condition differences in CO levels across time, TYR/PHE-free mixture was associated with increased demand for cigarettes (p = 0.01) and decreased attentional bias toward smoking-related words (p = 0.003). There were no significant differences between conditions in either subjective craving or depressed or anxious mood (p values > 0.05).Conclusion:Among nonabstaining daily smokers, acute dopaminergic depletion via ATPD may influence smoking behavior and indices of smoking-related motivation, such as attentional bias to smoking cues and relative cigarette value, which are not readily captured by subjective craving.

KW - adult

KW - amino acids

KW - cross-over studies

KW - cues

KW - dopamine

KW - double-blind method

KW - female

KW - humans

KW - male

KW - multivariate analysis

KW - phenylalanine

KW - reaction time

KW - smoking

KW - smoking cessation

KW - tyrosine

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DO - 10.1007/s00213-007-0995-5

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C2 - 18038222

VL - 196

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JO - Psychopharmacology

JF - Psychopharmacology

SN - 0033-3158

IS - 4

ER -