The need to produce sustainable cements has driven research towards nanotechnology. The main cement hydration product, calcium silicate hydrate, is nanosized; hence, the addition of nanoparticles to blended Portland cement formulations can remarkably modify mechanical strength, porosity and durability. The present paper discusses the material aspects of two different nanoparticles, nanosilica and montmorillonite nanoclay, the complications that arise from their addition to cement pastes and ways to mitigate these limitations. It is deduced that nanosilica solids in blended cement pastes should be limited to 0.5%, whereas nanoclay solids to almost 1 mass-% binder. Competitive reactivity of nanoparticles with other constituents is expected, and the possible pozzolanic activity is critically addressed. Notwithstanding progress made, there are significant potentials related to inorganic nanoclays.