Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

Enhad Chowdhury, Judith Richardson, Kostas Tsintzas, Dylan Thompson, James Betts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised crossover design, twenty-four obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183 ± 393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures.Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95 % CI -54 kJ, 490 kJ; p=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95 % CI -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; p<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (p≤0.06). Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (p<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (p≥0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (p=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 hour after lunch (p<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 hours post-lunch (p=0.09).Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but, counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.
LanguageEnglish
Pages305-311
JournalInternational Journal of Obesity
Volume40
Issue number2
Early online date8 Sep 2015
DOIs
StatusPublished - Feb 2016

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Lunch
Fasting
Appetite
Breakfast
Ghrelin
Hormones
tyrosyltyrosine
Satiety Response
Appetite Regulation
Leptin
Energy Intake
Cross-Over Studies
Meals
Obesity
Carbohydrates
Insulin
Glucose

Keywords

  • Breakfast skipping, appetite hormones, insulin sensitivity, second-meal effect, obesity.

Cite this

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title = "Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults",
abstract = "Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised crossover design, twenty-four obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183 ± 393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures.Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95 {\%} CI -54 kJ, 490 kJ; p=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95 {\%} CI -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; p<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (p≤0.06). Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (p<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (p≥0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (p=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 hour after lunch (p<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 hours post-lunch (p=0.09).Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but, counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.",
keywords = "Breakfast skipping, appetite hormones, insulin sensitivity, second-meal effect, obesity.",
author = "Enhad Chowdhury and Judith Richardson and Kostas Tsintzas and Dylan Thompson and James Betts",
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volume = "40",
pages = "305--311",
journal = "International Journal of Obesity",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Effect of extended morning fasting upon ad libitum lunch intake and associated metabolic and hormonal responses in obese adults

AU - Chowdhury, Enhad

AU - Richardson, Judith

AU - Tsintzas, Kostas

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Betts, James

PY - 2016/2

Y1 - 2016/2

N2 - Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised crossover design, twenty-four obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183 ± 393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures.Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95 % CI -54 kJ, 490 kJ; p=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95 % CI -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; p<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (p≤0.06). Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (p<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (p≥0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (p=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 hour after lunch (p<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 hours post-lunch (p=0.09).Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but, counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.

AB - Background/Objectives: Breakfast omission is positively associated with obesity and increased risk of disease. However, little is known about the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and associated metabolic/regulatory factors in obese adults. Subjects/Methods: In a randomised crossover design, twenty-four obese men (n=8) and women (n=16) extended their overnight fast by omitting breakfast consumption or ingesting a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast of 2183 ± 393 kJ (521±94 kcal), before an ad libitum pasta lunch 3 hours later. Blood samples were obtained throughout the day until 3 hours post-lunch and analysed for hormones implicated in appetite regulation, along with metabolic outcomes and subjective appetite measures.Results: Lunch intake was unaffected by extended morning fasting (difference=218 kJ, 95 % CI -54 kJ, 490 kJ; p=0.1) resulting in lower total intake in the fasting trial (difference=-1964 kJ, 95 % CI -1645 kJ, -2281 kJ; p<0.01). Systemic concentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and leptin were lower during the afternoon following morning fasting (p≤0.06). Plasma acylated ghrelin concentrations were also lower following the ad libitum lunch in the fasting trial (p<0.05) but this effect was not apparent for total ghrelin (p≥0.1). Serum insulin concentrations were greater throughout the afternoon in the fasting trial (p=0.05), with plasma glucose also greater 1 hour after lunch (p<0.01). Extended morning fasting did not result in greater appetite ratings after lunch, with some tendency for lower appetite 3 hours post-lunch (p=0.09).Conclusions: We demonstrate for the first time that, in obese adults, extended morning fasting does not cause compensatory intake during an ad libitum lunch nor does it increase appetite during the afternoon. Morning fasting reduced satiety hormone responses to a subsequent lunch meal but, counterintuitively also reduced concentrations of the appetite-stimulating hormone acylated ghrelin during the afternoon relative to lunch consumed after breakfast.

KW - Breakfast skipping, appetite hormones, insulin sensitivity, second-meal effect, obesity.

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2015.154

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2015.154

U2 - 10.1038/ijo.2015.154

DO - 10.1038/ijo.2015.154

M3 - Article

VL - 40

SP - 305

EP - 311

JO - International Journal of Obesity

T2 - International Journal of Obesity

JF - International Journal of Obesity

SN - 0307-0565

IS - 2

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