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Two novel sandwich-based immunoassays for prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis are reported, in which the primary antibody for capture is replaced by a DNA aptamer. The assays, which can be performed in parallel, were developed in a microfluidic device and tested for the detection of free Prostate Specific Antigen (fPSA). A secondary antibody (Aptamer–Antibody Assay) or a lectin (Aptamer–Lectin Assay) is used to quantify, by chemiluminescence, both the amount of fPSA and its glycosylation levels. The use of aptamers enables a more reliable, selective and controlled sensing of the analyte. The dual approach provides sensitive detection of fPSA along with selective fPSA glycoprofiling, which is of significant importance in the diagnosis and prognosis of PCa, as tumor progression is associated with changes in fPSA glycosylation. With these approaches, we can potentially detect 0.5 ng/mL of fPSA and 3 ng/mL of glycosylated fPSA using Sambucus nigra (SNA) lectin, both within the relevant clinical range. The approach can be applied to a wide range of biomarkers, thus providing a good alternative to standard antibody-based immunoassays with significant impact in medical diagnosis and prognosis.
- DNA aptamers
- sandwich assay
- Prostate cancer
Jolly, P., Damborsky, P., Madaboosi, N., Soares, R. R. G., Chu, V., Conde, J. P., Katrlik, J., & Estrela, P. (2016). DNA aptamer-based sandwich microfluidic assays for dual quantification and multi-glycan profiling of cancer biomarkers. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 79, 313-319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bios.2015.12.058