Nano-engineering III-nitride semiconductors offers a route to further control the optoelectronic properties, enabling novel functionalities and applications. Although a variety of lithography techniques are currently employed to nano-engineer these materials, the scalability and cost of the fabrication process can be an obstacle for large-scale manufacturing. In this paper, we report on the use of a fast, robust and flexible emerging patterning technique called Displacement Talbot lithography (DTL), to successfully nano-engineer III-nitride materials. DTL, along with its novel and unique combination with a lateral planar displacement (D2TL), allow the fabrication of a variety of periodic nanopatterns with a broad range of filling factors such as nanoholes, nanodots, nanorings and nanolines; all these features being achievable from one single mask. To illustrate the enormous possibilities opened by DTL/D2TL, dielectric and metal masks with a number of nanopatterns have been generated, allowing for the selective area growth of InGaN/GaN core-shell nanorods, the top-down plasma etching of III-nitride nanostructures, the top-down sublimation of GaN nanostructures, the hybrid top-down/bottom-up growth of AlN nanorods and GaN nanotubes, and the fabrication of nanopatterned sapphire substrates for AlN growth. Compared with their planar counterparts, these 3D nanostructures enable the reduction or filtering of structural defects and/or the enhancement of the light extraction, therefore improving the efficiency of the final device. These results, achieved on a wafer scale via DTL and upscalable to larger surfaces, have the potential to unlock the manufacturing of nano-engineered III-nitride materials.