Differences in creatine retention among three nutritional formulations of oral creatine supplements

M Greenwood, R B Kreider, Conrad P Earnest, C Rasmussen, A L Almada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Citations (SciVal)


Previous research has indicated that creatine retention is influenced by intramuscular creatine concentration and extracellular concentrations of glucose and insulin. This study examined whether different nutritional strategies affect whole body creatine retention. Specifically, 16 males with no history of creatine supplementation participated in this study. Subjects donated 24-hr urine samples for 4 days. After an initial control day, subjects were matched according to body mass and assigned to ingest in a single blind manner either 5 g of dextrose (D), 5 g of creatine monohydrate (CM), 5 g of CM + 18 g dextrose (C+D), or an effervescent creatine (EC) supplement (5 g of creatine + 18 g dextrose + 320 mg of sodium [as sodium carbonate and bicarbonate] + 175 mg of potassium [as potassium bicarbonate]) four times/day for 3 days. Creatine retention was estimated by subtracting total urinary creatine excretion from total supplemental creatine intake over the 3 day period. Data were analyzed by ANOVA. Results revealed that creatine retention was increased following creatine supplementation in all groups (D=0±0; CM= 36.6±9; C+D=48.0±7; EC=37.8±8 g, p=0.001). However, creatine retention in the C+D group was significantly greater than the CM group while no differences were observed between the EC and CM groups. This resulted in a greater percentage of creatine retention in the CD group (D= 0±0; CM=61±15; C+D=80±11; EC=63±13 %, p=0.001). These preliminary findings suggest that in accordance with previous research, ingesting dextrose (18 g) with CM (5 g) augments whole body creatine retention while EC supplementation appears to be no more effective than ingesting CM alone.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)37-43
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Exercise Physiology Online
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2003


  • Ergogenic Aid
  • Dietary Supplementation
  • Exercise
  • Sport Nutrition


Dive into the research topics of 'Differences in creatine retention among three nutritional formulations of oral creatine supplements'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this