Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is effective to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) from Diesel engines because it lowers the flame temperature and the oxygen concentration of the working fluid in the combustion chamber. However, as NOx reduces, particulate matter (PM) increases, resulting from the lowered oxygen concentration. When EGR further increases, the engine operation reaches zones with higher instabilities, increased carbonaceous emissions and even power losses. In this research, the paths and limits to reduce NOx emissions from Diesel engines are briefly reviewed, and the inevitable uses of EGR are highlighted. The impact of EGR on Diesel operations is analyzed and a variety of ways to implement EGR are outlined. Thereafter, new concepts regarding EGR stream treatment and EGR hydrogen reforming are proposed.