A random geometric graph (RGG) is defined by placing n points uniformly at random in [0,n 1/d ]d, and joining two points by an edge whenever their Euclidean distance is at most some fixed r. We assume that r is larger than the critical value for the emergence of a connected component with Ω(n) nodes. We show that, with high probability (w.h.p.), for any two connected nodes with a Euclidean distance of ω (logn/r1/d), their graph distance is only a constant factor larger than their Euclidean distance. This implies that the diameter of the largest connected component is Θ(n1/d/r) w.h.p. We also prove that the condition on the Euclidean distance above is essentially tight. We also analyze the following randomized broadcast algorithm on RGGs. At the beginning, only one node from the largest connected component of the RGG is informed. Then, in each round, each informed node chooses a neighbor independently and uniformly at random and informs it. We prove that w.h.p. this algorithm informs every node in the largest connected component of an RGG within Θ(n 1/d /r+logn) rounds.
Friedrich, T., Sauerwald, T., & Stauffer, A. (2013). Diameter and broadcast time of random geometric graphs in arbitrary dimensions. Algorithmica, 67(1), 65-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00453-012-9710-y