Development of Phenomenological Models for Engine-Out Hydrocarbon Emissions from an SI di Engine within a 0D Two-Zone Combustion Chamber Description

Stefania Esposito, Lutz Diekhoff, Heinz Pitsch, Stefan Pischinger

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The increasingly stringent limits on pollutant emissions from internal combustion engine-powered vehicles require the optimization of advanced combustion systems by means of virtual development and simulation tools. Among the gaseous emissions from spark-ignition engines, the unburned hydrocarbon (HC) emissions are the most challenging species to simulate because of the complexity of the multiple physical and chemical mechanisms that contribute to their emission. These mechanisms are mainly three-dimensional (3D) resulting from multi-phase physics - e.g., fuel injection, oil-film layer, etc. - and are difficult to predict even in complex 3D computational fluid-dynamic (CFD) simulations. Phenomenological models describing the relationships between the physical-chemical phenomena are of great interest for the modeling and simplification of such complex mechanisms. In addition, phenomenological models can be applied within simplified simulation environments, e.g., 0D-1D engine simulations, to enable predictions of HC emissions for a wide range of operating conditions. In this work, the development of phenomenological models to account for HC emissions from piston top-land crevices, wall flame quenching, and oil-film adsorption/desorption mechanisms is explained in detail. The model development is based on measurements and models from a single cylinder direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) research engine. Common modeling hypotheses and approaches from literature have been verified and further developed with 3D-CFD simulations. In particular, assumptions regarding local temperature and air-fuel ratio, which are necessary for HC modeling, have been developed on the basis of a zone post-processing of the 3D-CFD results. Additionally, a novel approach to describe HC post-oxidation, which is based on 0D-chemistry calculations, has been developed. The HC models have been implemented within a GT-POWER model of the engine in conjunction with a 0D two-zone combustion chamber description. The accuracy of the developed models has been tested against a large experimental database with varying engine load, speed, air to fuel ratio, valve timing, and oil/coolant temperature. The deviation in the HC emission prediction is mainly within 20% at warm engine operation. Higher deviations are observed at cold engine conditions because of the absence of secondary HC models which have not been considered in the present work.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2021-24-0008
JournalSAE Technical Papers
Issue number2021
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2021
EventSAE 15th International Conference on Engines and Vehicles, ICE 2021 - Capri, Italy
Duration: 12 Sept 202116 Sept 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was funded by “Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft” (DFG - German Research Foundation) - GRK 1856.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Pollution


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