Development and preliminary validation of a tool measuring concordance and belief about performing pressure-relieving activities for pressure ulcer prevention in spinal cord injury

Liang Q Liu, Sarah Chapman, Rachel Deegan, Sarah L Knight, Michael Traynor, Helen T Allan, Angela Gall

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


OBJECTIVE: To develop and examine the reliability, and validity of a questionnaire measuring concordance for performing pressure-relief for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention in people with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).

METHODS: Phase I included item development, content and face validity testing. In phase II, the questionnaire was evaluated for preliminary acceptability, reliability and validity among 48 wheelchair users with SCI.

RESULTS: Thirty-seven items were initially explored. Item and factor analysis resulted in a final 26-item questionnaire with four factors reflecting concordance, perceived benefits, perceived negative consequences, and personal practical barriers to performing pressure-relief activities. The internal consistency reliability for four domains were very good (Cronbach's α = 0.75-.89). Pearson correlation coefficient on a test-retest of the same subjects yielded significant correlations in concordance (r2 = 0.91, p = .005), perceived benefit (r2 = 0.71, p < .04), perceived negative consequences (r2 = 0.98, p < .0001), personal barriers (r2 = 0.93, p= .002). Participants with higher levels of concordance reported a greater amount of pressure-relieving performed. Individuals viewing PrU as a threatening illness were associated with higher scores of concordance and tended to report a greater amount of pressure-relieving performance which provides evidence of criterion related validity.

CONCLUSION: The new questionnaire demonstrated good preliminary reliability and validity in people with SCI. Further evaluation is necessary to confirm these findings using larger samples with follow-up data for predictive validity. Such a questionnaire could be used by clinicians to identify high risk of patients and to design individualised education programme for PrU prevention.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Tissue Viability
Early online date23 May 2020
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 23 May 2020

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