OBJECTIVE: To develop and examine the reliability, and validity of a questionnaire measuring concordance for performing pressure-relief for pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention in people with Spinal Cord Injury (SCI).
METHODS: Phase I included item development, content and face validity testing. In phase II, the questionnaire was evaluated for preliminary acceptability, reliability and validity among 48 wheelchair users with SCI.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven items were initially explored. Item and factor analysis resulted in a final 26-item questionnaire with four factors reflecting concordance, perceived benefits, perceived negative consequences, and personal practical barriers to performing pressure-relief activities. The internal consistency reliability for four domains were very good (Cronbach's α = 0.75-.89). Pearson correlation coefficient on a test-retest of the same subjects yielded significant correlations in concordance (r2 = 0.91, p = .005), perceived benefit (r2 = 0.71, p < .04), perceived negative consequences (r2 = 0.98, p < .0001), personal barriers (r2 = 0.93, p= .002). Participants with higher levels of concordance reported a greater amount of pressure-relieving performed. Individuals viewing PrU as a threatening illness were associated with higher scores of concordance and tended to report a greater amount of pressure-relieving performance which provides evidence of criterion related validity.
CONCLUSION: The new questionnaire demonstrated good preliminary reliability and validity in people with SCI. Further evaluation is necessary to confirm these findings using larger samples with follow-up data for predictive validity. Such a questionnaire could be used by clinicians to identify high risk of patients and to design individualised education programme for PrU prevention.