Developing measures of immersion and motivation for learning technologies in healthcare simulation: a pilot study

Christopher Jacobs, Jacob Rigby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


Introduction: Medical education has benefitted from the introduction of new technology within recent years. Immersive devices, such as, 360-degree films and virtual reality have become new ways of simulating clinical experiences. The aim of the study was to validate and test reliability of a new measure of engagement. Methods: A between-participants design of 2 groups viewing a clinical consultation on a 360-degree headset or 2D monitor was conducted following computer random allocation of 40 healthcare professionals recruited from scheduled teaching. Twenty-three were assigned to 360-degree and 17 to 2D Medias. Adapted Immersion Experience Questionnaire (AIEQ) and Abridged Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (AIMI) were modified to match factors relating to clinical encounters. AIEQ and AIMI were utilised as the data collection tool by each group following video viewing. Spearman’s rank correlation was used to assess relationship between immersion and motivation. Comparisons between 360-degree and 2D media responses were made using Wilcoxon’s signed ranks test. Internal reliability coefficients of adapted measures were calculated with Cronbach alpha scores. Results: Total immersion scores were statistically higher in those experiencing 360 (P<0.05), with a median difference of 14.50 (95% CI 6.50-22.00). A positive correlation existed between the total AIEQ and total score of the AIMI in both groups (rs=0.88, n=17, P<0.001). Internal consistency and reliability was demonstrated with a high Cronbach alpha score for the AIEQ (α=0.91). AIMI subscale alpha value was also high at (α=0.95) which shows the measures to be of high internal reliability. Conclusions: Adaptation and validation of existing measures for use in healthcare education can be used to quantify levels of immersion and motivation. Standardising measures for use in evaluating new Technology Enhanced Learning is a step to aid understanding on how we develop these tools in medical education and how we might learn from immersive technology.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)163-171
JournalJournal of Advances in Medical Education & Professionalism
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2022


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