Destruction and diversity

Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

In many parts of the world habitat is being destroyed at an alarming rate. Many major ecosystems have lost more than half of their original area, and some much more than this [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis (2005); World Wildlife Fund, Insight into Europe's Forest Protection (2001)]. At the same time biodiversity is fast declining [Butchart et al., Science 328:1164-1168, 2010]. Habitat loss is a major threat to biodiversity [Brooks et al., Conserv. Biol. 16:909-923, 2002; Baillie et al., 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: A Global Assessment (2004)], but the effects of the destruction are sometimes difficult to predict [Debinski and Holt, Conserv. Biol. 14:342-355, 2000; Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Hanski, AMBIO 40:248-255, 2011], and the effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey interactions in particular is unclear [Ryall and Fahrig, Ecology 87:1086-1093, 2006]. One reason for the lack of clarity may be that the species-occupancy patterns that underlie diversity patterns in fragmented landscapes have often been overlooked [Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Ovaskainen and Hanski, Ecol. Lett. 6:903-909, 2003]. The patch-occupancy metapopulation paradigm, despite its simplicity, has proved successful in developing some understanding of how habitat destruction affects the local flora and fauna. We shall review and derive some results arising from this approach for single species, for competitive and mutualistic communities, for predator-prey systems and food chains, and finally for a simple food web, a predator interacting with two competing prey. We show that although the outcome of habitat destruction in terms of species extinctions may be straightforward for the simplest models and communities, it may be subtly parameter-dependent and counter-intuitive with even a small increase in complexity. Progress towards a theory for more complex food webs [Leibold et al., Ecol. Lett. 7:601-613, 2004; Leibold and Miller, From metapopulations to metacommunities (2004); Pillai et al., Theor. Ecol. 3:223-237, 2010] will be difficult until we have a thorough understanding of these basic building blocks.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology
Subtitle of host publicationA Mathematical Perspective
EditorsMark A Lewis, Philip K Maini, Sergei V Petrovskii
Place of PublicationBerlin
PublisherSpringer
Pages307-330
Number of pages24
ISBN (Print)9783642354960
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Mathematics
Volume2071
ISSN (Print)0075-8434

Fingerprint

habitat loss
metapopulation
food web
ecosystem
predator
biodiversity
predator-prey interaction
Red List
habitat fragmentation
food chain
flora
extinction
fauna
ecology
ecological community
effect
habitat
habitat destruction
world

Cite this

Britton, N. F. (2013). Destruction and diversity: Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities. In M. A. Lewis, P. K. Maini, & S. V. Petrovskii (Eds.), Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology: A Mathematical Perspective (pp. 307-330). (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; Vol. 2071). Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11

Destruction and diversity : Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities. / Britton, N.F.

Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology: A Mathematical Perspective. ed. / Mark A Lewis; Philip K Maini; Sergei V Petrovskii. Berlin : Springer, 2013. p. 307-330 (Lecture Notes in Mathematics; Vol. 2071).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Britton, NF 2013, Destruction and diversity: Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities. in MA Lewis, PK Maini & SV Petrovskii (eds), Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology: A Mathematical Perspective. Lecture Notes in Mathematics, vol. 2071, Springer, Berlin, pp. 307-330. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11
Britton NF. Destruction and diversity: Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities. In Lewis MA, Maini PK, Petrovskii SV, editors, Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology: A Mathematical Perspective. Berlin: Springer. 2013. p. 307-330. (Lecture Notes in Mathematics). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11
Britton, N.F. / Destruction and diversity : Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities. Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology: A Mathematical Perspective. editor / Mark A Lewis ; Philip K Maini ; Sergei V Petrovskii. Berlin : Springer, 2013. pp. 307-330 (Lecture Notes in Mathematics).
@inbook{5102c3eb1a324a6eaebffe1fa51d77aa,
title = "Destruction and diversity: Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities",
abstract = "In many parts of the world habitat is being destroyed at an alarming rate. Many major ecosystems have lost more than half of their original area, and some much more than this [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis (2005); World Wildlife Fund, Insight into Europe's Forest Protection (2001)]. At the same time biodiversity is fast declining [Butchart et al., Science 328:1164-1168, 2010]. Habitat loss is a major threat to biodiversity [Brooks et al., Conserv. Biol. 16:909-923, 2002; Baillie et al., 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: A Global Assessment (2004)], but the effects of the destruction are sometimes difficult to predict [Debinski and Holt, Conserv. Biol. 14:342-355, 2000; Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Hanski, AMBIO 40:248-255, 2011], and the effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey interactions in particular is unclear [Ryall and Fahrig, Ecology 87:1086-1093, 2006]. One reason for the lack of clarity may be that the species-occupancy patterns that underlie diversity patterns in fragmented landscapes have often been overlooked [Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Ovaskainen and Hanski, Ecol. Lett. 6:903-909, 2003]. The patch-occupancy metapopulation paradigm, despite its simplicity, has proved successful in developing some understanding of how habitat destruction affects the local flora and fauna. We shall review and derive some results arising from this approach for single species, for competitive and mutualistic communities, for predator-prey systems and food chains, and finally for a simple food web, a predator interacting with two competing prey. We show that although the outcome of habitat destruction in terms of species extinctions may be straightforward for the simplest models and communities, it may be subtly parameter-dependent and counter-intuitive with even a small increase in complexity. Progress towards a theory for more complex food webs [Leibold et al., Ecol. Lett. 7:601-613, 2004; Leibold and Miller, From metapopulations to metacommunities (2004); Pillai et al., Theor. Ecol. 3:223-237, 2010] will be difficult until we have a thorough understanding of these basic building blocks.",
author = "N.F. Britton",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11",
language = "English",
isbn = "9783642354960",
series = "Lecture Notes in Mathematics",
publisher = "Springer",
pages = "307--330",
editor = "Lewis, {Mark A} and Maini, {Philip K} and Petrovskii, {Sergei V}",
booktitle = "Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology",

}

TY - CHAP

T1 - Destruction and diversity

T2 - Effects of habitat loss on ecological communities

AU - Britton, N.F.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - In many parts of the world habitat is being destroyed at an alarming rate. Many major ecosystems have lost more than half of their original area, and some much more than this [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis (2005); World Wildlife Fund, Insight into Europe's Forest Protection (2001)]. At the same time biodiversity is fast declining [Butchart et al., Science 328:1164-1168, 2010]. Habitat loss is a major threat to biodiversity [Brooks et al., Conserv. Biol. 16:909-923, 2002; Baillie et al., 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: A Global Assessment (2004)], but the effects of the destruction are sometimes difficult to predict [Debinski and Holt, Conserv. Biol. 14:342-355, 2000; Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Hanski, AMBIO 40:248-255, 2011], and the effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey interactions in particular is unclear [Ryall and Fahrig, Ecology 87:1086-1093, 2006]. One reason for the lack of clarity may be that the species-occupancy patterns that underlie diversity patterns in fragmented landscapes have often been overlooked [Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Ovaskainen and Hanski, Ecol. Lett. 6:903-909, 2003]. The patch-occupancy metapopulation paradigm, despite its simplicity, has proved successful in developing some understanding of how habitat destruction affects the local flora and fauna. We shall review and derive some results arising from this approach for single species, for competitive and mutualistic communities, for predator-prey systems and food chains, and finally for a simple food web, a predator interacting with two competing prey. We show that although the outcome of habitat destruction in terms of species extinctions may be straightforward for the simplest models and communities, it may be subtly parameter-dependent and counter-intuitive with even a small increase in complexity. Progress towards a theory for more complex food webs [Leibold et al., Ecol. Lett. 7:601-613, 2004; Leibold and Miller, From metapopulations to metacommunities (2004); Pillai et al., Theor. Ecol. 3:223-237, 2010] will be difficult until we have a thorough understanding of these basic building blocks.

AB - In many parts of the world habitat is being destroyed at an alarming rate. Many major ecosystems have lost more than half of their original area, and some much more than this [Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis (2005); World Wildlife Fund, Insight into Europe's Forest Protection (2001)]. At the same time biodiversity is fast declining [Butchart et al., Science 328:1164-1168, 2010]. Habitat loss is a major threat to biodiversity [Brooks et al., Conserv. Biol. 16:909-923, 2002; Baillie et al., 2004 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: A Global Assessment (2004)], but the effects of the destruction are sometimes difficult to predict [Debinski and Holt, Conserv. Biol. 14:342-355, 2000; Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Hanski, AMBIO 40:248-255, 2011], and the effect of habitat loss and fragmentation on predator-prey interactions in particular is unclear [Ryall and Fahrig, Ecology 87:1086-1093, 2006]. One reason for the lack of clarity may be that the species-occupancy patterns that underlie diversity patterns in fragmented landscapes have often been overlooked [Prugh et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:20770-20775, 2008; Ovaskainen and Hanski, Ecol. Lett. 6:903-909, 2003]. The patch-occupancy metapopulation paradigm, despite its simplicity, has proved successful in developing some understanding of how habitat destruction affects the local flora and fauna. We shall review and derive some results arising from this approach for single species, for competitive and mutualistic communities, for predator-prey systems and food chains, and finally for a simple food web, a predator interacting with two competing prey. We show that although the outcome of habitat destruction in terms of species extinctions may be straightforward for the simplest models and communities, it may be subtly parameter-dependent and counter-intuitive with even a small increase in complexity. Progress towards a theory for more complex food webs [Leibold et al., Ecol. Lett. 7:601-613, 2004; Leibold and Miller, From metapopulations to metacommunities (2004); Pillai et al., Theor. Ecol. 3:223-237, 2010] will be difficult until we have a thorough understanding of these basic building blocks.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877604875&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11

U2 - 10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11

DO - 10.1007/978-3-642-35497-7_11

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9783642354960

T3 - Lecture Notes in Mathematics

SP - 307

EP - 330

BT - Dispersal, Individual Movement and Spatial Ecology

A2 - Lewis, Mark A

A2 - Maini, Philip K

A2 - Petrovskii, Sergei V

PB - Springer

CY - Berlin

ER -