Designing for reflection on sender effort in close personal communication

Ryan Kelly, Daniel Gooch, Leon Watts

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding

3 Citations (SciVal)


Research has identified that people in close relationships value effort that is invested into the creation of digital messages. This paper explores the potential for communication systems to encourage reflection by revealing evidence of effort to message recipients, allowing for it to be appreciated. Focusing on text-based communication, we report findings from an exploratory study of three interface prototypes that probe users' reactions to the notion of revealing sender effort. We find that information about effort can foster empathy and appreciation by encouraging reflection over meaningful actions. However, designers of communication tools must address the issues of authenticity, controlled disclosure and cost in access if reflection on effort is to be valued. We consider how designers might negotiate these issues in future effort-sensitive communication technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 30th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2018
EditorsAnn Morrison, George Buchanan, Jenny Waycott, Mark Billinghurst, Duncan Stevenson, J.H.-J. Choi, Mark Billinghurst, Ryan Kelly, Dana McKay, Artur Lugmayr
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Number of pages12
ISBN (Electronic)9781450361880
Publication statusPublished - 4 Dec 2018
Event30th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, OzCHI 2018 - Melbourne, Australia
Duration: 4 Dec 20187 Dec 2018

Publication series

NameACM International Conference Proceeding Series


Conference30th Australian Conference on Computer-Human Interaction, OzCHI 2018


  • Close relationships
  • Communication
  • Effort
  • Reflection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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