Designing an evidence based community pharmacy service specification for a pharmacogenomic testing service

Tim Rendell, Julie Barnett, David Wright, Sion Scott

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Introduction: Pharmacogenomics (PGx) is a novel arena of medicine that uses patients’ DNA to support pharmacists and prescribers selecting the most appropriate medicine for patients.
Aim: To use an online consensus panel to review and validate a service specification for a PGx testing service in the English community pharmacy setting.
Method: A consensus panel comprising pharmacists, prescribers and patients was convened to participate in a co-design process of critical comment, reviewing the operationalisation of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) identified in a previous study. Panel members completed a survey prior to attending a workshop to discuss, agree and confirm the content for a service specification. Following the workshop recommended strategies for operationalisation were extracted and informed a final version of the service specification.
Results: From the consensus panel, strategies for operationalisation of the BCTs were identified including a pre-launch engagement event, subject matter expert support for healthcare professionals, provision of supporting materials and training requirements for clinical decision making. These were all incorporated into the service specification as part of the co-design.
Conclusion: Designing a community pharmacy led PGx service using co-design methodology has resulted in critical feedback, ideas validation and operationalisation of behavioural science generated BCTs to develop a pragmatic service specification. This is more likely to result in both pharmacist engagement to offer and deliver a community pharmacist led PGx testing service and prescriber acceptance of recommendations for any changes to patients’ prescriptions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1406-1416
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Early online date11 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

No specific funding was received.


  • testing service
  • service specification


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