Numerous diseases have been linked to a common pathogenic process called amyloidosis, whereby proteins or peptides clump together in the brain or body to form toxic soluble oligomers and/or insoluble fibres. An attractive strategy to develop therapies for these diseases is therefore to inhibit or reverse protein/peptide aggregation. A diverse range of small organic ligands have been found to act as aggregation inhibitors. Alternatively, the wild-type peptide can be derivatised so that it still binds to the amyloid target, but prevents further aggregation. This can be achieved by adding a bulky group or charged amino acid to either end of the peptide, or by incorporating proline residues or N-methylated amide groups.