Design of an Air-cooled Radial Turbine Part 1: Computational Modelling

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

This paper is part of a two-part publication that aims to design, simulate and test an internally air cooled radial turbine. To achieve this, the additive manufacturing process, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), was utilized to allow internal cooling passages within the blades and hub. This is, to the authors knowledge, the first publication in open literature to demonstrate such a cooled concept applied to a small radial turbine. In this paper, the internally cooled radial turbine was investigated using a Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) numerical simulation. Topology Optimization was also used to understand the areas of the wheel that could safely be used for cooling. In addition, the aerodynamic loss and efficiency of the design was compared to the baseline non-cooled wheel.
Given that the aim was to test the rotor under representative operating conditions, the material properties were important and thus updated to represent the latest data from the SLM technology provider. A polyhedral unstructured mesh made the meshing of internal coolant plenums including the detailed supporting structures possible. The inlet temperature was set to 1023 K to represent the experimental test condition. The simulation demonstrated the highest temperature at blade leading edge was 117 K lower than the uncooled turbine. The coolant mass flow required by turbine was 2.5% of the main stream flow to achieve this temperature drop. The inertial of the turbine was also reduced by 20% because of the mass removal required for the internal coolant plenums. The fluid fields both in coolant channels and downstream the cooled rotor was analyzed to indicate the aerodynamic factor that influences the temperature distribution. Furthermore, the solid stress distribution inside the rotor was analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coupled with CFD results.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2018

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Turbines
Coolants
Air
Rotors
Wheels
Aerodynamics
Melting
3D printers
Cooling
Stream flow
Lasers
Shape optimization
Temperature
Stress concentration
Materials properties
Computational fluid dynamics
Temperature distribution
Heat transfer
Finite element method
Fluids

Cite this

Zhang, Y., Duda, T., Scobie, J., Sangan, C., Redwood, A., & Copeland, C. (2018). Design of an Air-cooled Radial Turbine Part 1: Computational Modelling. In ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition [GT2018-76378]

Design of an Air-cooled Radial Turbine Part 1: Computational Modelling. / Zhang, Yang; Duda, Tomasz; Scobie, James; Sangan, Carl; Redwood, Alex; Copeland, Colin.

ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018. GT2018-76378.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Zhang, Y, Duda, T, Scobie, J, Sangan, C, Redwood, A & Copeland, C 2018, Design of an Air-cooled Radial Turbine Part 1: Computational Modelling. in ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition., GT2018-76378.
Zhang Y, Duda T, Scobie J, Sangan C, Redwood A, Copeland C. Design of an Air-cooled Radial Turbine Part 1: Computational Modelling. In ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018. GT2018-76378
Zhang, Yang ; Duda, Tomasz ; Scobie, James ; Sangan, Carl ; Redwood, Alex ; Copeland, Colin. / Design of an Air-cooled Radial Turbine Part 1: Computational Modelling. ASME Turbo Expo 2018: Turbomachinery Technical Conference and Exposition. 2018.
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abstract = "This paper is part of a two-part publication that aims to design, simulate and test an internally air cooled radial turbine. To achieve this, the additive manufacturing process, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), was utilized to allow internal cooling passages within the blades and hub. This is, to the authors knowledge, the first publication in open literature to demonstrate such a cooled concept applied to a small radial turbine. In this paper, the internally cooled radial turbine was investigated using a Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) numerical simulation. Topology Optimization was also used to understand the areas of the wheel that could safely be used for cooling. In addition, the aerodynamic loss and efficiency of the design was compared to the baseline non-cooled wheel. Given that the aim was to test the rotor under representative operating conditions, the material properties were important and thus updated to represent the latest data from the SLM technology provider. A polyhedral unstructured mesh made the meshing of internal coolant plenums including the detailed supporting structures possible. The inlet temperature was set to 1023 K to represent the experimental test condition. The simulation demonstrated the highest temperature at blade leading edge was 117 K lower than the uncooled turbine. The coolant mass flow required by turbine was 2.5{\%} of the main stream flow to achieve this temperature drop. The inertial of the turbine was also reduced by 20{\%} because of the mass removal required for the internal coolant plenums. The fluid fields both in coolant channels and downstream the cooled rotor was analyzed to indicate the aerodynamic factor that influences the temperature distribution. Furthermore, the solid stress distribution inside the rotor was analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coupled with CFD results.",
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AB - This paper is part of a two-part publication that aims to design, simulate and test an internally air cooled radial turbine. To achieve this, the additive manufacturing process, Selective Laser Melting (SLM), was utilized to allow internal cooling passages within the blades and hub. This is, to the authors knowledge, the first publication in open literature to demonstrate such a cooled concept applied to a small radial turbine. In this paper, the internally cooled radial turbine was investigated using a Conjugate Heat Transfer (CHT) numerical simulation. Topology Optimization was also used to understand the areas of the wheel that could safely be used for cooling. In addition, the aerodynamic loss and efficiency of the design was compared to the baseline non-cooled wheel. Given that the aim was to test the rotor under representative operating conditions, the material properties were important and thus updated to represent the latest data from the SLM technology provider. A polyhedral unstructured mesh made the meshing of internal coolant plenums including the detailed supporting structures possible. The inlet temperature was set to 1023 K to represent the experimental test condition. The simulation demonstrated the highest temperature at blade leading edge was 117 K lower than the uncooled turbine. The coolant mass flow required by turbine was 2.5% of the main stream flow to achieve this temperature drop. The inertial of the turbine was also reduced by 20% because of the mass removal required for the internal coolant plenums. The fluid fields both in coolant channels and downstream the cooled rotor was analyzed to indicate the aerodynamic factor that influences the temperature distribution. Furthermore, the solid stress distribution inside the rotor was analyzed using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) coupled with CFD results.

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