Introducing DeformIO, a novel deformable display with co-located force input and variable stiffness output. Unlike prior work, our approach does not require pin arrays or re-configurable panels. Instead, we leveraged pneumatics and resistive sensing to enable force detection and stiffness control on a soft continuous surface. This allows users to perceive rich tactile feedback on a soft surface and replicates the benefits of fluid finger movement from traditional glass-based screens. Using a robotic arm, we conducted a series of evaluations with 3,267 trials to quantify the performance of touch and force input, as well as stiffness output. Additionally, our study confirmed users’ ability to apply multiple force inputs simultaneously and distinguish stiffness levels. We illustrate how DeformIO enhances interaction through a vision for everyday interaction and include two implemented self-contained demonstrations.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI 2024 - Extended Abstracts of the 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Sytems
EditorsFlorian Floyd Mueller, Penny Kyburz, Julie R. Williamson, Corina Sas
Place of PublicationNew York, U. S. A.
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)9798400703317
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2024
EventCHI '24 : CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Honolulu, USA United States
Duration: 11 May 202416 May 2024

Publication series

NameConference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings


ConferenceCHI '24 : CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Country/TerritoryUSA United States


  • Deformable Display
  • Force Input
  • Pneumatics
  • Variable Stiffness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design

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