Defect passivation by pyridine-carbazole molecules for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells

Ganbaatar Tumen-Ulzii, Morgan Auffray, Dino Klotz, George F. Harrington, Xian Kai Chen, Umamahesh Balijapalli, Veeramani Vediyappan, Nozomi Nakamura, Zhao Feng, Kotaro Takekuma, Yuki Fujita, Pangpang Wang, Sunao Yamada, Kaoru Tamada, Munkhbayar Batmunkh, Yu Lin Zhong, Fabrice Mathevet, Hayden Salway, Miguel Anaya, Samuel D. StranksToshinori Matsushima, Chihaya Adachi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (SciVal)


The defects in the light-harvesting perovskite absorber layer play a key role in limiting power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) and long-term stability of lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Although organic ammonium halides have been used for defect passivation in high-performance PSCs, the stability issue is still a challenge. Herein, we develop a novel material of pyridine-carbazole (Py-Cz) to passivate defects via coordination bonding. With this passivation, the photoluminescence intensity of perovskite films was increased. In addition, the formation of under-coordinated Pb2+defects in perovskite films was reduced significantly, enabling high-performance and long-term stable PSCs. Three different sets of PSCs were constructed, namely, without passivation, with phenethylammonium iodide (PEAI) (commonly used for passivation), and with Py-Cz passivation. Remarkably, the PSCs fabricated using the Py-Cz passivation not only achieved PCEs of over 20% but also retained 85% of their initial performances over more than 5000 h. In contrast, the PSCs without or with PEAI passivation degraded quickly during the long-term operational stability test under light illumination. This method opens up a new opportunity to develop highly efficient and operationally stable PSCs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number12
Pages (from-to)15819-15827
Number of pages9
JournalACS Applied Energy Materials
Early online date14 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished - 26 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), the Green Innovation Fund Project; the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Core-to-Core Program A (Advanced Research Networks); French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), PICS No. 8085; JSPS KAKENHI (grant number 20H02817); The Samco Foundation; The Iketani Science and Technology Foundation; The Murata Science Foundation; The Iwatani Naoji Foundation; and The Asahi Glass Foundation. H.S. thanks the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) grant EP/S023046/1 for the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Sensor Technologies for a Healthy and Sustainable Future. M.A. acknowledges support by the Royal Academy of Engineering under the Research Fellowship program. M.B. acknowledges the funding support from the Australian Research Council (DE220100521). S.D.S. acknowledges funding from the Royal Society and Tata Group (UF150033). This work was supported by EPSRC grants EP/W004445/1 and utilized equipment purchased through an EPSRC Core Equipment Award 2020.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society. All rights reserved.


  • defect passivation
  • perovskite solar cells
  • pyridine-carbazole molecules

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrochemistry
  • Materials Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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