TY - JOUR

T1 - Deep neural networks for inverse problems with pseudodifferential operators: an application to limited-angle tomography

AU - Bubba, Tatiana

AU - Galinier, Mathilde

AU - Lassas, Matti

AU - Prato, Marco

AU - Ratti, Luca

AU - Siltanen, Samuli

PY - 2021/12/31

Y1 - 2021/12/31

N2 - We propose a novel convolutional neural network (CNN), called $\Psi$DONet, designed for learning pseudodifferential operators ($\Psi$DOs) in the context of linear inverse problems. Our starting point is the iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA), a well-known algorithm to solve sparsity-promoting minimization problems. We show that, under rather general assumptions on the forward operator, the unfolded iterations of ISTA can be interpreted as the successive layers of a CNN, which in turn provides fairly general network architectures that, for a specific choice of the parameters involved, allow us to reproduce ISTA, or a perturbation of ISTA for which we can bound the coefficients of the filters. Our case study is the limited-angle X-ray transform and its application to limited-angle computed tomography (LA-CT). In particular, we prove that, in the case of LA-CT, the operations of upscaling, downscaling, and convolution, which characterize our $\Psi$DONet and most deep learning schemes, can be exactly determined by combining the convolutional nature of the limited-angle X-ray transform and basic properties defining an orthogonal wavelet system. We test two different implementations of $\Psi$DONet on simulated data from limited-angle geometry, generated from the ellipse data set. Both implementations provide equally good and noteworthy preliminary results, showing the potential of the approach we propose and paving the way to applying the same idea to other convolutional operators which are $\Psi$DOs or Fourier integral operators.

AB - We propose a novel convolutional neural network (CNN), called $\Psi$DONet, designed for learning pseudodifferential operators ($\Psi$DOs) in the context of linear inverse problems. Our starting point is the iterative soft thresholding algorithm (ISTA), a well-known algorithm to solve sparsity-promoting minimization problems. We show that, under rather general assumptions on the forward operator, the unfolded iterations of ISTA can be interpreted as the successive layers of a CNN, which in turn provides fairly general network architectures that, for a specific choice of the parameters involved, allow us to reproduce ISTA, or a perturbation of ISTA for which we can bound the coefficients of the filters. Our case study is the limited-angle X-ray transform and its application to limited-angle computed tomography (LA-CT). In particular, we prove that, in the case of LA-CT, the operations of upscaling, downscaling, and convolution, which characterize our $\Psi$DONet and most deep learning schemes, can be exactly determined by combining the convolutional nature of the limited-angle X-ray transform and basic properties defining an orthogonal wavelet system. We test two different implementations of $\Psi$DONet on simulated data from limited-angle geometry, generated from the ellipse data set. Both implementations provide equally good and noteworthy preliminary results, showing the potential of the approach we propose and paving the way to applying the same idea to other convolutional operators which are $\Psi$DOs or Fourier integral operators.

U2 - 10.1137/20M1343075

DO - 10.1137/20M1343075

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 470

EP - 505

JO - SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences

JF - SIAM Journal on Imaging Sciences

SN - 1936-4954

IS - 2

ER -