Creativity Enhancement Methods for Adults: A Meta-Analysis

Jennifer Haase, Paul H.P. Hanel, Norbert Gronau

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (SciVal)


This meta-analysis synthesizes 332 effect sizes of various methods to enhance creativity. We clustered all studies into 12 methods to identify the most effective creativity enhancement methods. We found that, on average, creativity can be enhanced, Hedges’ g= 0.53, 95% CI [0.44, 0.61], with 70.09% of the participants in the enhancement conditions being more creative than the average person in the control conditions. Complex training courses, meditation, and cultural exposure were the most effective (gs = 0.66) while the use of cognitive manipulation drugs was the least and also noneffective, g= 0.10. The type of training material was also important. For instance, figural methods were more effective in enhancing creativity, and enhancing converging thinking was more effective than enhancing divergent thinking. Study effect sizes varied considerably across all studies and for many subgroup analyses, suggesting that researchers can plausibly expect to find reversed effects occasionally.We found no evidence of publication bias.We discuss theoretical implications and suggest future directions for best practices in enhancing creativity.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPsychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts
Early online date27 Mar 2023
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), grant number 16DII133 and 16DII137 (Weizenbaum-Institute). The responsibility for the content of this publication remains with the authors.


  • assessment
  • creativity training
  • effectiveness
  • enhancement
  • manipulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Visual Arts and Performing Arts
  • Applied Psychology


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