TY - UNPB

T1 - Coupling Analysis of the Asymptotic Behaviour of a Primal-Dual Langevin Algorithm

AU - Burger, Martin

AU - Ehrhardt, Matthias J.

AU - Kuger, Lorenz

AU - Weigand, Lukas

PY - 2024/5/28

Y1 - 2024/5/28

N2 - We analyze a recently proposed algorithm for the problem of sampling from probability distributions $\mu^\ast$ in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with a Lebesgue density of the form $\mu^\ast(x) \propto \exp(-f(Kx)-g(x))$, where $K$ is a linear operator and $f,g$ convex and non-smooth. The algorithm is a generalization of the primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) convex optimization algorithm to a sampling scheme. We analyze the method's continuous time limit, an SDE in the joint primal-dual variable. We give mild conditions under which the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation converges to a unique stationary state, which however does not concentrate in the dual variable and consequently does not have $\mu^\ast$ as its primal marginal. Under a smoothness assumption on $f$, we show that the scheme converges to the purely primal overdamped Langevin diffusion in the limit of small primal and large dual step sizes. We further prove that the target can never be the primal marginal of the invariant solution for any modification of the SDE with space-homogeneous diffusion coefficient. A correction with inhomogeneous diffusion coefficient and the correct invariant solution is proposed, but the scheme requires the same smoothness assumptions on $f$ and is numerically inferior to overdamped Langevin diffusion. We demonstrate our findings numerically, first on small-scale examples in which we can exactly verify the theoretical results, and subsequently on typical examples of larger scale from Bayesian imaging inverse problems.

AB - We analyze a recently proposed algorithm for the problem of sampling from probability distributions $\mu^\ast$ in $\mathbb{R}^d$ with a Lebesgue density of the form $\mu^\ast(x) \propto \exp(-f(Kx)-g(x))$, where $K$ is a linear operator and $f,g$ convex and non-smooth. The algorithm is a generalization of the primal-dual hybrid gradient (PDHG) convex optimization algorithm to a sampling scheme. We analyze the method's continuous time limit, an SDE in the joint primal-dual variable. We give mild conditions under which the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation converges to a unique stationary state, which however does not concentrate in the dual variable and consequently does not have $\mu^\ast$ as its primal marginal. Under a smoothness assumption on $f$, we show that the scheme converges to the purely primal overdamped Langevin diffusion in the limit of small primal and large dual step sizes. We further prove that the target can never be the primal marginal of the invariant solution for any modification of the SDE with space-homogeneous diffusion coefficient. A correction with inhomogeneous diffusion coefficient and the correct invariant solution is proposed, but the scheme requires the same smoothness assumptions on $f$ and is numerically inferior to overdamped Langevin diffusion. We demonstrate our findings numerically, first on small-scale examples in which we can exactly verify the theoretical results, and subsequently on typical examples of larger scale from Bayesian imaging inverse problems.

KW - math.OC

U2 - 10.48550/arXiv.2405.18098

DO - 10.48550/arXiv.2405.18098

M3 - Preprint

BT - Coupling Analysis of the Asymptotic Behaviour of a Primal-Dual Langevin Algorithm

PB - arXiv

ER -